Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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Updated: 1 hour 46 min ago

Correlates of STI Testing Among US Young Adults: Opportunities for Prevention.

Tue, 11/03/2020 - 05:27
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Correlates of STI Testing Among US Young Adults: Opportunities for Prevention.

Prev Sci. 2020 Nov 02;:

Authors: Thompson EL, Griner SB, Galvin AM, Lowery AD, Lewis MA

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine sex cognitions and behavioral strategy correlates for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV testing among a national sample of young adults ages 18-20. Young adults (18-20 years) were recruited nationally (n = 1144). The sample was restricted (n = 817) based on inclusion/exclusion criteria for analysis. The outcome variables were gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV testing, respectively, in the last 12 months. Covariates included demographic variables, alcohol use, perceived vulnerability, protective behavioral strategies, and sexual behavior in the last 3 months. Adjusted logistic regression models were estimated in SAS 9.4. Approximately 24% of respondents were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and 21% were tested for HIV in the past year. Women were more likely than men to be tested for chlamydia (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.13, 2.46) and gonorrhea (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.05, 2.28). Persons who were worried about an STI after a sexual encounter and who engaged in casual sex were more than two times as likely to be tested for all three STIs. Similarly, persons who used more non-condom-related protective behavioral strategies were more likely to be tested. Future studies may consider these correlates as potential intervention points for promoting STI testing among young adults.

PMID: 33135130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Nationwide Trends in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases and Outcomes Among Young Adults (18-39 years) Hospitalized With Comorbid Depression.

Tue, 11/03/2020 - 05:27
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Nationwide Trends in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases and Outcomes Among Young Adults (18-39 years) Hospitalized With Comorbid Depression.

Cureus. 2020 Sep 24;12(9):e10640

Authors: Desai R, Valaparla VL, Fong HK, Gandhi ZJ, Varma Y, Varma K, Ali Khan MZ, Dawood B, Desai V, Savani S, Doshi R, Mansuri Z

Abstract
Background Modern-day studies that assess temporal trends in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (CCE) and outcomes among the young population in the United States (US) with depression remain limited. Methods We compared baseline demographics, comorbidities, all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), arrhythmia, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) among hospitalized young adults (18-39 years) with vs. without depression using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2007 to 2014. Results A total of 3,575,275 patients out of 63,020,008 hospitalized young adults had comorbid depression (5.7%; median 31 years, 71.3% females). The depressed cohort more often comprised of older, white, male, and non-electively admitted patients. Higher rates of comorbidities, all-cause mortality, PCI, arrhythmia, VTE, and stroke were observed among the depressed cohort. The rising trend in all-cause mortality was observed among the depressed against a stable trend in the non-depressed. The prevalence of AMI remained stable among depressed with consistent upsurges in arrhythmia and stroke. Those with depression had extended hospital stay, higher hospitalization charges, and were more often transferred to other facilities or discharged against advice. Conclusions Rising trends of inpatient mortality, CCE, and higher resource utilization among young adults with depression are concerning and warrants a multidisciplinary approach to improve quality of life and outcomes.

PMID: 33133810 [PubMed]

Two-stage Bayesian GWAS of 9576 individuals identifies SNP regions that are targeted by miRNAs inversely expressed in Alzheimer's and cancer.

Sat, 10/31/2020 - 06:14
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Two-stage Bayesian GWAS of 9576 individuals identifies SNP regions that are targeted by miRNAs inversely expressed in Alzheimer's and cancer.

Alzheimers Dement. 2020 01;16(1):162-177

Authors: Pathak GA, Zhou Z, Silzer TK, Barber RC, Phillips NR, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, and Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: We compared genetic variants between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and two age-related cancers-breast and prostate -to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with inverse comorbidity of AD and cancer.
METHODS: Bayesian multinomial regression was used to compare sex-stratified cases (AD and cancer) against controls in a two-stage study. A ±500 KB region around each replicated hit was imputed and analyzed after merging individuals from the two stages. The microRNAs (miRNAs) that target the genes involving these SNPs were analyzed for miRNA family enrichment.
RESULTS: We identified 137 variants with inverse odds ratios for AD and cancer located on chromosomes 19, 4, and 5. The mapped miRNAs within the network were enriched for miR-17 and miR-515 families.
DISCUSSION: The identified SNPs were rs4298154 (intergenic), within TOMM40/APOE/APOC1, MARK4, CLPTM1, and near the VDAC1/FSTL4 locus. The miRNAs identified in our network have been previously reported to have inverse expression in AD and cancer.

PMID: 31914222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hydrogen sulphide ameliorates dopamine-induced astrocytic inflammation and neurodegeneration in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

Fri, 10/30/2020 - 07:04
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Hydrogen sulphide ameliorates dopamine-induced astrocytic inflammation and neurodegeneration in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

J Cell Mol Med. 2020 Oct 28;:

Authors: Zhuge W, Zhuge Q, Wang W, Lu X, You R, Liu L, Yu H, Wang J, Wang X, Ye Y, Ding S

Abstract
It has been demonstrated that the action of dopamine (DA) could enhance the production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by astrocytes and potentiate neuronal apoptosis in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Recently, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) has been found to have neuroprotective properties. Our study addressed whether NaHS could rescue DA-challenged inflammation and apoptosis in neurons to ameliorate memory impairment in MHE rats and in the neuron and astrocyte coculture system. We found that NaHS suppressed DA-induced p65 acetylation, resulting in reduced TNF-α production in astrocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, decreased apoptosis was observed in neurons exposed to conditioned medium from DA + NaHS-challenged astrocytes, which was similar to the results obtained in the neurons exposed to TNF-α + NaHS, suggesting a therapeutic effect of NaHS on the suppression of neuronal apoptosis via the reduction of TNF-α level. DA triggered the inactivation of p70 S6 ribosomal kinase (S6K1) and dephosphorylation of Bad, resulting in the disaggregation of Bclxl and Bak and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt. c), and this process could be reversed by NaHS administration. Our work demonstrated that NaHS attenuated DA-induced astrocytic TNF-α release and ameliorated inflammation-induced neuronal apoptosis in MHE. Further research into this approach may uncover future potential therapeutic strategies for MHE.

PMID: 33118312 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Group-Based Trajectory Modeling to Identify Patterns of Adherence and Its Predictors Among Older Adults on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs)/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs).

Fri, 10/30/2020 - 07:04
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Group-Based Trajectory Modeling to Identify Patterns of Adherence and Its Predictors Among Older Adults on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs)/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs).

Patient Prefer Adherence. 2020;14:1935-1947

Authors: Paranjpe R, Johnson ML, Essien EJ, Barner JC, Serna O, Gallardo E, Majd Z, Fleming ML, Ordonez N, Holstad MM, Abughosh SM

Abstract
Purpose: Commonly prescribed medications among patients with comorbid diabetes mellitus and hypertension include ARBs and ACEIs. However, these medications are associated with suboptimal adherence leading to inadequately controlled blood pressure. Unlike traditional single estimates of proportion of days covered (PDC), group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) can graphically display the dynamic nature of adherence. The objective of this study was to evaluate adherence using GBTMs among patients prescribed ACEI/ARBs and identify predictors associated with each adherence trajectory.
Patients and Methods: Patients with an ACEI/ARBs prescription were identified between July 2017 and December 2017 using a Medicare Advantage dataset. PDC was used to measure monthly patient adherence during the one-year follow-up period. The monthly PDC was added to a logistic group-based trajectory model to provide distinct patterns of adherence. Further, a multinomial logistic regression was conducted to determine predictors of each identified adherence trajectory. Predictors included various socio-demographic and clinical patient characteristics.
Results: A total of 22,774 patients were included in the analysis and categorized into 4 distinct adherence trajectories: rapid decline (12.6%); adherent (58.5%); gaps in adherence (12.2%), and gradual decline (16.6%). Significant predictors associated with all lower adherence trajectories included 90 days refill, >2 number of other medications, ≥1 hospitalizations, and prevalent users. Significant predictors associated with the rapid decline trajectory included male sex, comorbidities, and increased CMS risk score. Further, significant predictors associated with the gaps in adherence trajectory included increasing age, and comorbidities. Lastly, significant predictors associated with the gradual decline trajectory included increasing age, no health plan subsidy, comorbidities, and increasing CMS risk score.
Conclusion: Identifying various patient characteristics associated with non-adherent trajectories can guide the development of tailored interventions to enhance adherence to ACEI/ARBs.

PMID: 33116437 [PubMed]

Examining the association between oral health status and dementia: A nationwide nested case-controlled study.

Fri, 10/30/2020 - 07:04
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Examining the association between oral health status and dementia: A nationwide nested case-controlled study.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2020 02;245(3):231-244

Authors: Lin JW, Chang CH, Caffrey JL

PMID: 32039633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Sniffer cells for the detection of neural Angiotensin II in vitro.

Thu, 10/29/2020 - 05:38
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Sniffer cells for the detection of neural Angiotensin II in vitro.

Sci Rep. 2019 06 19;9(1):8820

Authors: Farmer GE, Amune A, Bachelor ME, Duong P, Yuan JP, Cunningham JT

Abstract
Neuropeptide release in the brain has traditionally been difficult to observe. Existing methods lack temporal and spatial resolution that is consistent with the function and size of neurons. We use cultured "sniffer cells" to improve the temporal and spatial resolution of observing neuropeptide release. Sniffer cells were created by stably transfecting Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells with plasmids encoding the rat angiotensin type 1a receptor and a genetically encoded Ca2+ sensor. Isolated, cultured sniffer cells showed dose-dependent increases in fluorescence in response to exogenously applied angiotensin II and III, but not other common neurotransmitters. Sniffer cells placed on the median preoptic nucleus (a presumptive site of angiotensin release) displayed spontaneous activity and evoked responses to either electrical or optogenetic stimulation of the subfornical organ. Stable sniffer cell lines could be a viable method for detecting neuropeptide release in vitro, while still being able to distinguish differences in neuropeptide concentration.

PMID: 31217439 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

FDA Public Workshop Summary: Advancing Animal Models for Antibacterial Drug Development.

Wed, 10/28/2020 - 07:14

FDA Public Workshop Summary: Advancing Animal Models for Antibacterial Drug Development.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Oct 26;:

Authors: Byrne JM, Waack U, Weinstein EA, Joshi A, Shurland SM, Iarikov D, Bulitta JB, Diep BA, Guina T, Hope WW, Lawrenz MB, Lepak AJ, Luna BM, Miesel L, Phipps AJ, Walsh TJ, Weiss W, Amini T, Farley JJ

Abstract
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hosted a public workshop entitled "Advancing Animal Models for Antibacterial Drug Development" on March 5, 2020. The workshop mainly focused on models of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii The program included discussions from academic investigators, industry, and U.S. government scientists. The potential use of mouse, rabbit, and pig models for antibacterial drug development was presented and discussed.

PMID: 33106262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cholesterol sulfate alters astrocyte metabolism and provides protection against oxidative stress.

Wed, 10/28/2020 - 07:14
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Cholesterol sulfate alters astrocyte metabolism and provides protection against oxidative stress.

Brain Res. 2019 11 15;1723:146378

Authors: Prah J, Winters A, Chaudhari K, Hersh J, Liu R, Yang SH

Abstract
Cholesterol sulfate (CS) is one of the most important known sterol sulfates in human plasma and it is present as a normal constituent in a variety of human tissues. In both the brain and periphery, CS serves as a substrate for the synthesis of sulfonated adrenal steroids such as pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate and as a constituent of many biological membranes including red blood cells where it functions as a stabilizing agent. It also acts as an endogenous regulator of cholesterol synthesis. However, the role of CS in brain metabolism and neurological disorder is unclear. In the current study we investigated the neuroprotective action of CS as well as its role in brain energy metabolism. The neuroprotective effect of CS and its role on cell metabolism were determined in primary astrocyte prepared from the cortex of postnatal day 0-2 C57BL/6 pups and a hippocampal HT-22 cell line using Calcein AM and MTT cell viability assay, flow cytometry, Seahorse extracellular flux analysis, and metabolism assay kits. We found that CS attenuates glutamate and rotenone induced cell death in HT-22 cells, decrease glutamate induced mitochondria membrane potential collapse, and reactive oxygen species production. Additionally, CS activates the Akt/Bcl2 pathway. We observed that CS impacts astrocyte metabolism by increasing mitochondrial phosphorylation, ATP, and glycogen contents. Our study demonstrated that CS modulates brain energy metabolism and its neuroprotective effects might be due to the activation of Akt signaling or its ability to decrease reactive oxygen species production.

PMID: 31425677 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Liposomal mupirocin holds promise for systemic treatment of invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections.

Tue, 10/27/2020 - 05:31
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Liposomal mupirocin holds promise for systemic treatment of invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections.

J Control Release. 2019 12 28;316:292-301

Authors: Goldmann O, Cern A, Müsken M, Rohde M, Weiss W, Barenholz Y, Medina E

Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of severe invasive infections. The increasing incidence of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), calls for exploration of new approaches to treat these infections. Mupirocin is an antibiotic with a unique mode of action that is active against MRSA, but its clinical use is restricted to topical administration because of its limited plasma stability and rapid degradation to inactive metabolites. Mupirocin was identified by a machine learning approach to be suitable for nano-liposome encapsulation. The computational predictions were verified experimentally and PEGylated nano-liposomal formulation of mupirocin (Nano-mupirocin) was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this formulation when administered parenterally for the treatment of S. aureus invasive infections. Nano-mupirocin exhibited prolonged half-life of active antibiotic and displayed superior antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than free mupirocin in the presence of plasma. Parenteral application of Nano-mupirocin in a murine model of S. aureus bloodstream infection resulted in improved antibiotic distribution to infected organs and in a superior therapeutic efficacy than the free drug. Parenterally administered Nano-mupirocin was also more active against MRSA than free mupirocin in a neutropenic murine lung infection model. In addition, Nano-mupirocin was very efficiently taken up by S. aureus-infected macrophages via phagocytosis leading to enhanced delivery of mupirocin in the intracellular niche and to a more efficient elimination of intracellular staphylococci. The outcome of this study highlights the potential of Nano-mupirocin for the treatment of invasive MRSA infections and support the further clinical development of this effective therapeutic approach.

PMID: 31715276 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Systematic review of student anxiety and performance during objective structured clinical examinations.

Sat, 10/24/2020 - 07:39

Systematic review of student anxiety and performance during objective structured clinical examinations.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2020 Dec;12(12):1491-1497

Authors: Martin RD, Naziruddin Z

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Test anxiety is well studied in higher education, but studies primarily concern traditional assessments, such as written examinations. As use of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in pharmacy education increases, a closer examination of non-cognitive factors such as test anxiety is warranted. The purpose of this review was to determine the association between OSCE-associated test anxiety with OSCE performance in health professional students.
METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify peer-reviewed literature concerning test anxiety in health professional students associated with OSCE. Investigators searched for a combination of OSCE-related terms with anxiety-related terms using PubMed. Articles were included if they assessed OSCE-related anxiety by quantitative or qualitative methods. Data extracted from eligible articles included demographic data, type of the anxiety survey, associations between OSCE-related anxiety and performance, and other student-factors associated with OSCE-related anxiety.
RESULTS: The literature search yielded 339 articles. Nine articles met eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Results included students from medical, pharmacy, dental, and nursing professional programs. Anxiety was assessed via multiple scales. Six out of the eight studies assessing the relationship OSCE-related anxiety and OSCE performance found no association between the two measures. Contrary to literature concerning test anxiety in higher education, female gender was not associated with OSCE-related anxiety.
CONCLUSION: OSCE-related anxiety appears to have minimal to no influence on student performance. Future studies should utilize standardized anxiety assessments and should seek to understand anxiety's effects on student wellbeing and burnout.

PMID: 33092780 [PubMed - in process]

Intermittent Hypoxic Conditioning Alleviates Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-Induced Damage and Dysfunction of Rat Visceral Organs and Brain.

Sat, 10/24/2020 - 07:39
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Intermittent Hypoxic Conditioning Alleviates Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-Induced Damage and Dysfunction of Rat Visceral Organs and Brain.

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jan 05;21(1):

Authors: Manukhina EB, Tseilikman VE, Karpenko MN, Pestereva NS, Tseilikman OB, Komelkova MV, Kondashevskaya MV, Goryacheva AV, Lapshin MS, Platkovskii PO, Sarapultsev AP, Alliluev AV, Downey HF

Abstract
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) causes mental and somatic diseases. Intermittent hypoxic conditioning (IHC) has cardio-, vaso-, and neuroprotective effects and alleviates experimental PTSD. IHC's ability to alleviate harmful PTSD effects on rat heart, liver, and brain was examined. PTSD was induced by 10-day exposure to cat urine scent (PTSD rats). Some rats were then adapted to 14-day IHC (PTSD+IHC rats), while PTSD and untreated control rats were cage rested. PTSD rats had a higher anxiety index (AI, X-maze test), than control or PTSD+IHC rats. This higher AI was associated with reduced glycogen content and histological signs of metabolic and hypoxic damage and of impaired contractility. The livers of PTSD rats had reduced glycogen content. Liver and blood alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities of PTSD rats were significantly increased. PTSD rats had increased norepinephrine concentration and decreased monoamine oxidase A activity in cerebral cortex. The PTSD-induced elevation of carbonylated proteins and lipid peroxidation products in these organs reflects oxidative stress, a known cause of organ pathology. IHC alleviated PTSD-induced metabolic and structural injury and reduced oxidative stress. Therefore, IHC is a promising preventive treatment for PTSD-related morphological and functional damage to organs, due, in part, to IHC's reduction of oxidative stress.

PMID: 31948051 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Novel Chitohexaose Analog Protects Young and Aged mice from CLP Induced Polymicrobial Sepsis.

Sat, 10/24/2020 - 07:39
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Novel Chitohexaose Analog Protects Young and Aged mice from CLP Induced Polymicrobial Sepsis.

Sci Rep. 2019 02 27;9(1):2904

Authors: Das P, Panda SK, Agarwal B, Behera S, Ali SM, Pulse ME, Solomkin JS, Opal SM, Bhandari V, Acharya S

Abstract
In Gram-negative bacterial sepsis, production of excess pro-inflammatory cytokines results in hyperinflammation and tissue injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 inhibit inflammation and enhance tissue healing. Here, we report a novel approach to treat septicemia associated with intra-abdominal infection in a murine model by delicately balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. A novel oligosaccharide compound AVR-25 selectively binds to the TLR4 protein (IC50 = 0.15 µM) in human peripheral blood monocytes and stimulates IL-10 production. Following the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure, intravenous dosing of AVR-25 (10 mg/kg, 6-12 h post-CLP) alone and in combination with antibiotic imipenem protected both young adult (10-12 week old) and aged (16-18 month old) mice against polymicrobial infection, organ dysfunction, and death. Proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MIP-1, i-NOS) were decreased significantly and restoration of tissue damage was observed in all organs. A decrease in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and bacterial colony forming unit (CFU) confirmed improved bacterial clearance. Together, these findings demonstrate the therapeutic ability of AVR-25 to mitigate the storm of inflammation and minimize tissue injury with high potential for adjunctive therapy in intra-abdominal sepsis.

PMID: 30814582 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Whole body passive heating versus dynamic lower body exercise: A comparison of peripheral hemodynamic profiles.

Fri, 10/23/2020 - 06:38

Whole body passive heating versus dynamic lower body exercise: A comparison of peripheral hemodynamic profiles.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2020 Oct 22;:

Authors: Amin SB, Hansen AB, Mugele H, Willmer F, Gross F, Reimeir B, Cornwell WK, Simpson LL, Moore JP, Romero SA, Lawley JS

Abstract
Passive heating has emerged as a therapeutic intervention for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like exercise, heating increases peripheral artery blood flow and shear rate which is thought to be a primary mechanism underpinning endothelium mediated vascular adaptation. However, few studies have compared the increase in arterial blood flow and shear rate between dynamic exercise and passive heating. In a fixed crossover design study, 15 moderately trained healthy participants (25.6 ± 3.4 years) (5 female) underwent 30 minutes of whole body passive heating (42 °C bath), followed on a separate day by 30 minutes of semi-recumbent stepping exercise performed at two workloads corresponding to the increase in cardiac output (Qc) (Δ3.72 l∙min-1) and heart rate (HR) (Δ38 bpm) recorded at the end of passive heating. Results: At the same Qc (Δ3.72 l∙min-1 vs 3.78 l∙min-1), femoral artery blood flow (1599 ml/min vs 1947 ml/min) (p=0.596) and shear rate (162 s -1 vs 192 s-1) (p=0.471) measured by ultrasonography were similar between passive heating and stepping exercise. However, for the same HR matched intensity, femoral blood flow (1599 ml·min-1 vs 2588 ml·min-1) and shear rate (161s-1 vs 271s-1) were significantly greater during exercise, compared with heating (both P=<0.001). The results indicate that, for moderately trained individuals, passive heating increases common femoral artery blood flow and shear rate similar to low intensity continuous dynamic exercise (29% VO2max), however exercise performed at a higher intensity (53% VO2max) results in significantly larger shear rates towards the active skeletal muscle.

PMID: 33090910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Supersized Alcopop Consumption Associated With Homelessness and Gang Membership.

Fri, 10/23/2020 - 06:38

Supersized Alcopop Consumption Associated With Homelessness and Gang Membership.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2020 Oct 14;:

Authors: Rossheim ME, Lerch JA, Walters ST, Livingston MD, Taxman FS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Supersized alcopops are single-serving, ready-to-drink beverages with very high alcohol content. Research suggests that consumption of these products is especially dangerous. The current study was one of the first to examine individual-level characteristics associated with recent consumption of supersized alcopops.
METHODS: Adults on probation (n = 253; 70% male) in Baltimore City, MD, and Dallas, TX, who reported heavy drinking or any illicit drug use completed interviews. Psychosocial scales were drawn from the Criminal Justice Client Evaluation of Self and Treatment Intake. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine characteristics associated with past 30-day consumption of supersized alcopops.
RESULTS: Past 30-day consumption of supersized alcopops was significantly associated with higher scores for hostility and risk-taking, and lower scores on the self-esteem scale compared to nonconsumers. Recent consumption of supersized alcopops was also significantly associated with past 30-day homelessness and current gang affiliation. Among those who did not experience homelessness, 11% consumed supersized alcopops, compared to 30% of those who experienced homelessness. Further, 11% of those who were not gang-affiliated reported consuming a supersized alcopop within the past 30 days, compared to 57% of those who were gang-affiliated.
DISCUSSION: This study identifies disparate consumption of dangerous supersized alcopop products by vulnerable and at-risk groups. Better regulation of supersized alcopop marketing is needed to reduce alcohol consumption among high-risk groups, including people who are homeless and gang members, and display greater hostility and risk-taking traits. Previous research suggests that reducing the alcohol by volume and increasing the retail price of supersized alcopops would reduce some of the harms associated with consumption.

PMID: 33090525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Comment on: Langerhans cell histiocytosis with BRAF p.N486_P490del or MAP2K1 p.K57_G61del treated by the MEK inhibitor trametinib.

Fri, 10/23/2020 - 06:38

Comment on: Langerhans cell histiocytosis with BRAF p.N486_P490del or MAP2K1 p.K57_G61del treated by the MEK inhibitor trametinib.

Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2020 Oct 21;:e28776

Authors: Vicenzi P, Ray A

PMID: 33089615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Allelic frequencies with 23 autosomic STRS in the Aymara population of Peru.

Fri, 10/23/2020 - 06:38

Allelic frequencies with 23 autosomic STRS in the Aymara population of Peru.

Int J Legal Med. 2020 Oct 21;:

Authors: Neyra-Rivera CD, Ticona Arenas A, Delgado Ramos E, Velasquez Reinoso MRE, Budowle B

Abstract
Population data of the Aymara in the province of Puno were established for 23 autosomal STR markers. DNA was obtained from unrelated individuals (n = 190) who reside in three areas of the Floating Islands of Lake Titicaca, residents on the border with Bolivia and residents who are not from the border with Bolivia. The PENTA E marker presented the highest PD (0.9738), PIC (0.8793), and PM (0.7847) values. The combined PD was greater than 0.99999999 and the combined PE was 0.99999994. The largest distance, based on Fst values, was between the Aymara population and the Ashaninca population (0.04022), and the smallest distance was with the populations of Bolivia (0.00136) and Peru (0.00525).

PMID: 33089341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Association of Economic Outcome and Geriatric Syndromes among Older Adults with Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR).

Fri, 10/23/2020 - 06:38

The Association of Economic Outcome and Geriatric Syndromes among Older Adults with Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR).

J Health Econ Outcomes Res. 2020;7(2):175-181

Authors: Kwak MJ, Rasu R, Morgan RO, Lee J, Rianon NJ, Holmes HM, Dhoble A, Kim DH

Abstract
Background: The association of geriatric syndromes and economic outcomes among patients who are undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) remains unknown.
Methods and Results: A retrospective observational study using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2011 to 2014 was conducted with 7078 patients who were 65 years or older and underwent TAVR. The average hospital cost was US$58 703 (± SD 29 777) and length of stay (LOS) was 8.1 days (±7.20). The rates of delirium, dementia, and frailty were 8.0%, 6.1%, and 10.5%, respectively. From a multivariable generalized linear regression, delirium increased the cost by 31.5% (95% CI 25.41~37.92) and LOS by 70.3% (95% CI 60.20~83.38). Frailty increased the cost by 7.4% (95% CI 3.44~11.53) and the LOS by 22.6% (95% CI 15.15~30.55). Dementia had no significant association with either outcome. When the interactions of the geriatric syndromes were tested for association with the outcomes, delirium in the absence of dementia but presence of frailty showed the strongest association with cost (increase by 45.1%, 95% CI 26.45~66.45), and delirium in the absence of both dementia and frailty showed the strongest association with LOS (increase by 74.5%, 95% CI 62.71~87.13). When the average hospital cost and LOS were predicted using the model with interaction terms, patients with delirium and frailty (but without dementia) had the highest value (total hospital cost US$86 503 and LOS 14.9 days).
Conclusion: Among TAVR patients, delirium was significantly associated with increased hospital cost and LOS, and the association was significantly higher in the absence of dementia. The results of this study will be a great asset for health care providers and administrators in planning for efficient care strategy to lower health care expenditure in the hospital for older adults who underwent TAVR.

PMID: 33088843 [PubMed]

When Memory Does Not Serve You Well.

Thu, 10/22/2020 - 06:02
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When Memory Does Not Serve You Well.

Circ Res. 2020 03 13;126(6):722-724

Authors: Shimoura CG, Mathis KW

PMID: 32163345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An East Asian-specific Common Variant in TNNI3 Predisposes to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Wed, 10/21/2020 - 07:47

An East Asian-specific Common Variant in TNNI3 Predisposes to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Circulation. 2020 Oct 20;:

Authors: Wu G, Liu L, Zhou Z, Liu J, Wang B, Ruan J, Yang Q, Kanchwala M, Dai P, Zhang C, Wang D, Kang L, Wang S, Hui R, Zou Y, Xing C, Song L, Wang J

PMID: 33078954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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