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Intermittent Hypoxic Conditioning Alleviates Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-Induced Damage and Dysfunction of Rat Visceral Organs and Brain.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 10/24/2020 - 07:39
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Intermittent Hypoxic Conditioning Alleviates Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-Induced Damage and Dysfunction of Rat Visceral Organs and Brain.

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jan 05;21(1):

Authors: Manukhina EB, Tseilikman VE, Karpenko MN, Pestereva NS, Tseilikman OB, Komelkova MV, Kondashevskaya MV, Goryacheva AV, Lapshin MS, Platkovskii PO, Sarapultsev AP, Alliluev AV, Downey HF

Abstract
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) causes mental and somatic diseases. Intermittent hypoxic conditioning (IHC) has cardio-, vaso-, and neuroprotective effects and alleviates experimental PTSD. IHC's ability to alleviate harmful PTSD effects on rat heart, liver, and brain was examined. PTSD was induced by 10-day exposure to cat urine scent (PTSD rats). Some rats were then adapted to 14-day IHC (PTSD+IHC rats), while PTSD and untreated control rats were cage rested. PTSD rats had a higher anxiety index (AI, X-maze test), than control or PTSD+IHC rats. This higher AI was associated with reduced glycogen content and histological signs of metabolic and hypoxic damage and of impaired contractility. The livers of PTSD rats had reduced glycogen content. Liver and blood alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities of PTSD rats were significantly increased. PTSD rats had increased norepinephrine concentration and decreased monoamine oxidase A activity in cerebral cortex. The PTSD-induced elevation of carbonylated proteins and lipid peroxidation products in these organs reflects oxidative stress, a known cause of organ pathology. IHC alleviated PTSD-induced metabolic and structural injury and reduced oxidative stress. Therefore, IHC is a promising preventive treatment for PTSD-related morphological and functional damage to organs, due, in part, to IHC's reduction of oxidative stress.

PMID: 31948051 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Novel Chitohexaose Analog Protects Young and Aged mice from CLP Induced Polymicrobial Sepsis.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 10/24/2020 - 07:39
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Novel Chitohexaose Analog Protects Young and Aged mice from CLP Induced Polymicrobial Sepsis.

Sci Rep. 2019 02 27;9(1):2904

Authors: Das P, Panda SK, Agarwal B, Behera S, Ali SM, Pulse ME, Solomkin JS, Opal SM, Bhandari V, Acharya S

Abstract
In Gram-negative bacterial sepsis, production of excess pro-inflammatory cytokines results in hyperinflammation and tissue injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 inhibit inflammation and enhance tissue healing. Here, we report a novel approach to treat septicemia associated with intra-abdominal infection in a murine model by delicately balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. A novel oligosaccharide compound AVR-25 selectively binds to the TLR4 protein (IC50 = 0.15 µM) in human peripheral blood monocytes and stimulates IL-10 production. Following the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure, intravenous dosing of AVR-25 (10 mg/kg, 6-12 h post-CLP) alone and in combination with antibiotic imipenem protected both young adult (10-12 week old) and aged (16-18 month old) mice against polymicrobial infection, organ dysfunction, and death. Proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MIP-1, i-NOS) were decreased significantly and restoration of tissue damage was observed in all organs. A decrease in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and bacterial colony forming unit (CFU) confirmed improved bacterial clearance. Together, these findings demonstrate the therapeutic ability of AVR-25 to mitigate the storm of inflammation and minimize tissue injury with high potential for adjunctive therapy in intra-abdominal sepsis.

PMID: 30814582 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Whole body passive heating versus dynamic lower body exercise: A comparison of peripheral hemodynamic profiles.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 10/23/2020 - 06:38

Whole body passive heating versus dynamic lower body exercise: A comparison of peripheral hemodynamic profiles.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2020 Oct 22;:

Authors: Amin SB, Hansen AB, Mugele H, Willmer F, Gross F, Reimeir B, Cornwell WK, Simpson LL, Moore JP, Romero SA, Lawley JS

Abstract
Passive heating has emerged as a therapeutic intervention for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like exercise, heating increases peripheral artery blood flow and shear rate which is thought to be a primary mechanism underpinning endothelium mediated vascular adaptation. However, few studies have compared the increase in arterial blood flow and shear rate between dynamic exercise and passive heating. In a fixed crossover design study, 15 moderately trained healthy participants (25.6 ± 3.4 years) (5 female) underwent 30 minutes of whole body passive heating (42 °C bath), followed on a separate day by 30 minutes of semi-recumbent stepping exercise performed at two workloads corresponding to the increase in cardiac output (Qc) (Δ3.72 l∙min-1) and heart rate (HR) (Δ38 bpm) recorded at the end of passive heating. Results: At the same Qc (Δ3.72 l∙min-1 vs 3.78 l∙min-1), femoral artery blood flow (1599 ml/min vs 1947 ml/min) (p=0.596) and shear rate (162 s -1 vs 192 s-1) (p=0.471) measured by ultrasonography were similar between passive heating and stepping exercise. However, for the same HR matched intensity, femoral blood flow (1599 ml·min-1 vs 2588 ml·min-1) and shear rate (161s-1 vs 271s-1) were significantly greater during exercise, compared with heating (both P=<0.001). The results indicate that, for moderately trained individuals, passive heating increases common femoral artery blood flow and shear rate similar to low intensity continuous dynamic exercise (29% VO2max), however exercise performed at a higher intensity (53% VO2max) results in significantly larger shear rates towards the active skeletal muscle.

PMID: 33090910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Supersized Alcopop Consumption Associated With Homelessness and Gang Membership.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 10/23/2020 - 06:38

Supersized Alcopop Consumption Associated With Homelessness and Gang Membership.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2020 Oct 14;:

Authors: Rossheim ME, Lerch JA, Walters ST, Livingston MD, Taxman FS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Supersized alcopops are single-serving, ready-to-drink beverages with very high alcohol content. Research suggests that consumption of these products is especially dangerous. The current study was one of the first to examine individual-level characteristics associated with recent consumption of supersized alcopops.
METHODS: Adults on probation (n = 253; 70% male) in Baltimore City, MD, and Dallas, TX, who reported heavy drinking or any illicit drug use completed interviews. Psychosocial scales were drawn from the Criminal Justice Client Evaluation of Self and Treatment Intake. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine characteristics associated with past 30-day consumption of supersized alcopops.
RESULTS: Past 30-day consumption of supersized alcopops was significantly associated with higher scores for hostility and risk-taking, and lower scores on the self-esteem scale compared to nonconsumers. Recent consumption of supersized alcopops was also significantly associated with past 30-day homelessness and current gang affiliation. Among those who did not experience homelessness, 11% consumed supersized alcopops, compared to 30% of those who experienced homelessness. Further, 11% of those who were not gang-affiliated reported consuming a supersized alcopop within the past 30 days, compared to 57% of those who were gang-affiliated.
DISCUSSION: This study identifies disparate consumption of dangerous supersized alcopop products by vulnerable and at-risk groups. Better regulation of supersized alcopop marketing is needed to reduce alcohol consumption among high-risk groups, including people who are homeless and gang members, and display greater hostility and risk-taking traits. Previous research suggests that reducing the alcohol by volume and increasing the retail price of supersized alcopops would reduce some of the harms associated with consumption.

PMID: 33090525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Comment on: Langerhans cell histiocytosis with BRAF p.N486_P490del or MAP2K1 p.K57_G61del treated by the MEK inhibitor trametinib.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 10/23/2020 - 06:38

Comment on: Langerhans cell histiocytosis with BRAF p.N486_P490del or MAP2K1 p.K57_G61del treated by the MEK inhibitor trametinib.

Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2020 Oct 21;:e28776

Authors: Vicenzi P, Ray A

PMID: 33089615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Allelic frequencies with 23 autosomic STRS in the Aymara population of Peru.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 10/23/2020 - 06:38

Allelic frequencies with 23 autosomic STRS in the Aymara population of Peru.

Int J Legal Med. 2020 Oct 21;:

Authors: Neyra-Rivera CD, Ticona Arenas A, Delgado Ramos E, Velasquez Reinoso MRE, Budowle B

Abstract
Population data of the Aymara in the province of Puno were established for 23 autosomal STR markers. DNA was obtained from unrelated individuals (n = 190) who reside in three areas of the Floating Islands of Lake Titicaca, residents on the border with Bolivia and residents who are not from the border with Bolivia. The PENTA E marker presented the highest PD (0.9738), PIC (0.8793), and PM (0.7847) values. The combined PD was greater than 0.99999999 and the combined PE was 0.99999994. The largest distance, based on Fst values, was between the Aymara population and the Ashaninca population (0.04022), and the smallest distance was with the populations of Bolivia (0.00136) and Peru (0.00525).

PMID: 33089341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Association of Economic Outcome and Geriatric Syndromes among Older Adults with Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR).

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 10/23/2020 - 06:38

The Association of Economic Outcome and Geriatric Syndromes among Older Adults with Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR).

J Health Econ Outcomes Res. 2020;7(2):175-181

Authors: Kwak MJ, Rasu R, Morgan RO, Lee J, Rianon NJ, Holmes HM, Dhoble A, Kim DH

Abstract
Background: The association of geriatric syndromes and economic outcomes among patients who are undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) remains unknown.
Methods and Results: A retrospective observational study using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2011 to 2014 was conducted with 7078 patients who were 65 years or older and underwent TAVR. The average hospital cost was US$58 703 (± SD 29 777) and length of stay (LOS) was 8.1 days (±7.20). The rates of delirium, dementia, and frailty were 8.0%, 6.1%, and 10.5%, respectively. From a multivariable generalized linear regression, delirium increased the cost by 31.5% (95% CI 25.41~37.92) and LOS by 70.3% (95% CI 60.20~83.38). Frailty increased the cost by 7.4% (95% CI 3.44~11.53) and the LOS by 22.6% (95% CI 15.15~30.55). Dementia had no significant association with either outcome. When the interactions of the geriatric syndromes were tested for association with the outcomes, delirium in the absence of dementia but presence of frailty showed the strongest association with cost (increase by 45.1%, 95% CI 26.45~66.45), and delirium in the absence of both dementia and frailty showed the strongest association with LOS (increase by 74.5%, 95% CI 62.71~87.13). When the average hospital cost and LOS were predicted using the model with interaction terms, patients with delirium and frailty (but without dementia) had the highest value (total hospital cost US$86 503 and LOS 14.9 days).
Conclusion: Among TAVR patients, delirium was significantly associated with increased hospital cost and LOS, and the association was significantly higher in the absence of dementia. The results of this study will be a great asset for health care providers and administrators in planning for efficient care strategy to lower health care expenditure in the hospital for older adults who underwent TAVR.

PMID: 33088843 [PubMed]

When Memory Does Not Serve You Well.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 10/22/2020 - 06:02
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When Memory Does Not Serve You Well.

Circ Res. 2020 03 13;126(6):722-724

Authors: Shimoura CG, Mathis KW

PMID: 32163345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An East Asian-specific Common Variant in TNNI3 Predisposes to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 10/21/2020 - 07:47

An East Asian-specific Common Variant in TNNI3 Predisposes to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Circulation. 2020 Oct 20;:

Authors: Wu G, Liu L, Zhou Z, Liu J, Wang B, Ruan J, Yang Q, Kanchwala M, Dai P, Zhang C, Wang D, Kang L, Wang S, Hui R, Zou Y, Xing C, Song L, Wang J

PMID: 33078954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Retrospective data analyses of social and environmental determinants of malaria control for elimination prospects in Eritrea.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 10/21/2020 - 07:47
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Retrospective data analyses of social and environmental determinants of malaria control for elimination prospects in Eritrea.

Parasit Vectors. 2020 Mar 12;13(1):126

Authors: Mihreteab S, Lubinda J, Zhao B, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Karamehic-Muratovic A, Goitom A, Shad MY, Haque U

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The present study focuses on both long- and short-term malaria transmission in Eritrea and investigates the risk factors. Annual aggregates of information on malaria cases, deaths, diagnostics and control interventions from 2001 to 2008 and monthly reported data from 2009 to 2017 were obtained from the National Malaria Control Programme. We used a generalized linear regression model to examine the associations among total malaria cases, death, insecticide-treated net coverage, indoor residual spraying and climatic parameters.
RESULTS: Reduction in malaria mortality is demonstrated by the milestone margins of over 97% by the end of 2017. Malaria incidence likewise declined during the period (from 33 to 5 per 1000 population), representing a reduction of about 86% (R2 = 0.3) slightly less than the decline in mortality. The distribution of insecticide treated nets generally declined between 2001 and 2014 (R2 = 0.16) before increasing from 2015 to 2017, while the number of people protected by indoor residual spraying slightly increased (R2 = 0.27). Higher rainfall was significantly associated with an increased number of malaria cases. The covariates rainfall and temperature are a better pair than IRS and LLIN to predict incidences. On the other hand, IRS and LLIN is a more significant pair to predict mortality cases.
CONCLUSIONS: While Eritrea has made significant progress towards malaria elimination, this progress should be maintained and further improved. Distribution, coverage and utilization of malaria control and elimination tools should be optimized and sustained to safeguard the gains made. Additionally, consistent annual performance evaluation of malaria indicators would ensure a continuous learning process from gains/threats of epidemics and resurgence in regions already earmarked for elimination.

PMID: 32164770 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Proteomics Profiling of Autologous Blood and Semen Exosomes from HIV-infected and Uninfected Individuals Reveals Compositional and Functional Variabilities.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 10/21/2020 - 07:47
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Proteomics Profiling of Autologous Blood and Semen Exosomes from HIV-infected and Uninfected Individuals Reveals Compositional and Functional Variabilities.

Mol Cell Proteomics. 2020 01;19(1):78-100

Authors: Kaddour H, Lyu Y, Welch JL, Paromov V, Mandape SN, Sakhare SS, Pandhare J, Stapleton JT, Pratap S, Dash C, Okeoma CM

Abstract
Blood and semen are important body-fluids that carry exosomes for bioinformation transmission. Therefore, characterization of their proteomes is necessary for understanding body-fluid-specific physiologic and pathophysiologic functions. Using systematic multifactorial proteomic profiling, we characterized the proteomes of exosomes and exosome-free fractions from autologous blood and semen from three HIV-uninfected and three HIV-infected participants (total of 24 samples). We identified exosome-based protein signatures specific to blood and semen along with HIV-induced tissue-dependent proteomic perturbations. We validated our findings with samples from 16 additional donors and showed that unlike blood exosomes (BE), semen exosomes (SE) are enriched in clusterin. SE but not BE promote Protein·Nucleic acid binding and increase cell adhesion irrespective of HIV infection. This is the first comparative study of the proteome of autologous BE and SE. The proteins identified may be developed as biomarkers applicable to different fields of medicine, including reproduction and infectious diseases.

PMID: 31676584 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of salt-loading on supraoptic vasopressin neurones assessed by ClopHensorN chloride imaging.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 10/21/2020 - 07:47
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Effects of salt-loading on supraoptic vasopressin neurones assessed by ClopHensorN chloride imaging.

J Neuroendocrinol. 2019 08;31(8):e12752

Authors: Balapattabi K, Farmer GE, Knapp BA, Little JT, Bachelor M, Yuan JP, Cunningham JT

Abstract
Salt-loading (SL) impairs GABAA inhibition of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurones in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. Based on previous studies, we hypothesised that SL activates tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), down-regulating the activity of K+ /Cl- co-transporter2 (KCC2) and up-regulating Na+ /K+ /Cl- co-transporter1 (NKCC1). These changes in chloride transport would result in increased [Cl- ]i in SON AVP neurones. The study combined virally-mediated chloride imaging with ClopHensorN with a single-cell western blot analysis. An adeno-associated virus with ClopHensorN and a vasopressin promoter (AAV2-0VP1-ClopHensorN) was bilaterally injected in the SON of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were either euhydrated (Eu) or salt-loaded (SL) for 7 days. Acutely dissociated SON neurones expressing ClopHensorN were tested for decreases or increases in [Cl- ]i in response to focal application of the GABAA agonist muscimol (100 μmol L-1 ). SON AVP neurones from Eu rats showed muscimol-induced chloride influx (P < 0.05;23/35). SON AVP neurones from SL rats either significantly increased chloride efflux (P < 0.05;27/39) or did not change chloride flux (12/39). The SON AVP neurones that responded to muscimol appeared to be viable and expressed KCC2 and β-actin. Neurones that did not respond during chloride imaging did not show KCC2 and β-actin protein expression. The KCC2 antagonist (VU0240551,10 μmol L-1 ) significantly blocked the chloride influx in cells from Eu rats but did not affect cells from SL rats. A NKCC1 antagonist (bumetanide,10 μmol L-1 ) significantly blocked the chloride efflux in cells from SL rats but had no effect on cells from Eu rats. Blocking NKCC1 using bumetanide had less of an effect on the muscimol-induced Cl- influx in Eu rat neurones compared to the KCC2 antagonist. The TrkB antagonist (AnA-12) (50 μmol L-1 ) and protein kinase inhibitor (K252a) (100 nmol L-1 ) each significantly blocked chloride efflux in SON AVP neurones from SL rats. Salt-loading increases [Cl- ]i in SON AVP neurones via a TrKB-KCC2-NKCC1-dependent mechanism in rats.

PMID: 31136029 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress on Endothelial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Humans.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 10/21/2020 - 03:35

Effect of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress on Endothelial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Humans.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2020 Oct 14;:

Authors: Hemingway HW, Moore AM, Olivencia-Yurvati AH, Romero SA

Abstract
Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rodent and cell models. However, the contribution of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the pathogenesis of endothelial I/R injury in humans is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that compared with placebo, inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress via ingestion of tauroursodeoxycholic acid would prevent the attenuation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation following I/R injury. Twelve young adults (six women) were studied following ingestion of a placebo or 1,500 mg tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (duplex ultrasonography) before and after I/R injury, which was induced by 20 min of arm ischemia followed by 20 min of reperfusion. Endothelium-independent vasodilation (glyceryl trinitrate-mediated vasodilation) was also assessed after I/R injury. Compared with placebo, TUDCA ingestion increased circulating plasma concentrations by 145 ± 90 ng ml-1 and increased concentrations of the taurine unconjugated form, ursodeoxycholic acid by 560 ± 156 ng ml-1 (both P < 0.01). Ischemia-reperfusion injury attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation, an effect that did not differ between placebo (pre-I/R, 5.0 ± 2.1% vs. post-I/R 3.5 ± 2.2%) and TUDCA (pre-I/R, 5.6 ± 2.1% vs. post-I/R 3.9 ± 2.1%; P = 0.8) conditions. Similarly, endothelium-independent vasodilation did not differ between conditions (placebo, 19.6 ± 4.8% vs. TUDCA, 19.7 ± 6.1%; P = 0.9). Taken together, endoplasmic reticulum stress does not appear to contribute to endothelial I/R injury in healthy young adults.

PMID: 33074709 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The impact of COVID-19 on globalization.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 10/21/2020 - 03:35

The impact of COVID-19 on globalization.

One Health. 2020 Oct 13;:100180

Authors: Shrestha N, Shad MY, Ulvi O, Khan MH, Karamehic-Muratovic A, Nguyen UDT, Baghbanzadeh M, Wardrup R, Aghamohammadi N, Cervantes D, Nahiduzzaman KM, Zaki RA, Haque U

Abstract
Globalization has altered the way we live our lives and earn a livelihood. Consequently, trade and travel have been recognized as significant determinants of the spread of disease. Additionally, rise in urbanization and the closer integration of the world economy has facilitated global interconnectedness. Therefore, globalization has emerged as an essential mechanism of disease transmission. This paper aims to examine the potential impacts of COVID-19 on globalization and global health in terms of mobility, trade, travel, and countries most impacted. The effect of globalization was operationalized in terms of mobility, economy, and healthcare systems. The mobility of individuals and its magnitude was assessed using airline and seaport trade data and travel information. The economic impact was measured based on the workforce, event cancellations, food and agriculture, academic institutions, and supply chain. The healthcare capacity was assessed by consideration of healthcare systems indicators and preparedness of countries. Utilizing a technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) we calculated a pandemic vulnerability index (PVI) creating a quantitative measure of the potential global health. The pandemic has placed an unprecedented burden on the world's economy, healthcare, and globalization through the travel, events cancellation, employment workforce, food chain, academia, and healthcare capacity. Based on PVI results, certain countries are more vulnerable than others. In Africa, more vulnerable countries include South Africa and Egypt; in Europe, they are Russia, Germany, and Italy; in Asia and Oceania, they are India, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey; and for the Americas, they are Brazil, USA, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. The impact on mobility, economy, and healthcare systems has only started to manifest. The findings of this study may help in the planning and implementation of strategies at the country level to help ease this emerging burden.

PMID: 33072836 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evaluation of 16S rRNA Hypervariable Regions for Bioweapon Species Detection by Massively Parallel Sequencing.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Mon, 10/19/2020 - 19:52

Evaluation of 16S rRNA Hypervariable Regions for Bioweapon Species Detection by Massively Parallel Sequencing.

Int J Microbiol. 2020;2020:8865520

Authors: Dias VHG, Gomes PDSFC, Azevedo-Martins AC, Cabral BCA, Woerner AE, Budowle B, Moura-Neto RS, Silva R

Abstract
Molecular detection and classification of the bacterial groups in a sample are relevant in several areas, including medical research and forensics. Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is considered the gold standard for microbial phylogenetic analysis. However, the development of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers enhanced sensitivity and specificity for microbiological analyses. In addition, 16S rRNA target amplification followed by MPS facilitates the combined use of multiple markers/regions, better discrimination of sample background, and higher sample throughput. We designed a novel set of 16S rRNA gene primers for detection of bacterial species associated with clinical, bioweapon, and biohazards microorganisms via alignment of 364 sequences representing 19 bacterial species and strains relevant to medical and forensics applications. In silico results indicated that the hypervariable regions (V1V2), (V4V5), and (V6V7V8) support the resolution of a selected group of bacteria. Interspecies and intraspecies comparisons showed 74.23%-85.51% and 94.48%-99.98% sequencing variation among species and strains, respectively. Sequence reads from a simulated scenario of bacterial species mapped to each of the three hypervariable regions of the respective species with different affinities. The minimum limit of detection was achieved using two different MPS platforms. This protocol can be used to detect or monitor as low as 2,000 genome equivalents of bacterial species associated with clinical, bioweapon, and biohazard microorganisms and potentially can distinguish natural outbreaks of pathogenic microorganisms from those occurring by intentional release.

PMID: 33061983 [PubMed]

Increasing body temperature with dynamic exercise and/or by wallowing/bathing in hot water or saunas: Effects on cerebral blood flow.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Mon, 10/19/2020 - 19:52
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Increasing body temperature with dynamic exercise and/or by wallowing/bathing in hot water or saunas: Effects on cerebral blood flow.

J Physiol. 2020 04;598(8):1421-1422

Authors: Raven PB, Romero SA

PMID: 32080850 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Design, synthesis, and evaluation of N-(4-(4-phenyl piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-(thiophen-3-yl)benzamides as selective dopamine D3 receptor ligands.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Mon, 10/19/2020 - 19:52
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Design, synthesis, and evaluation of N-(4-(4-phenyl piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-(thiophen-3-yl)benzamides as selective dopamine D3 receptor ligands.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2019 09 15;29(18):2690-2694

Authors: Chen PJ, Taylor M, Griffin SA, Amani A, Hayatshahi H, Korzekwa K, Ye M, Mach RH, Liu J, Luedtke RR, Gordon JC, Blass BE

Abstract
As part of our on-going effort to explore the role of dopamine receptors in drug addiction and identify potential novel therapies for this condition, we have a identified a series of N-(4-(4-phenyl piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-(thiophen-3-yl)benzamide D3 ligands. Members of this class are highly selective for D3 versus D2, and we have identified two compounds (13g and 13r) whose rat in vivo IV pharmacokinetic properties that indicate that they are suitable for assessment in in vivo efficacy models of substance use disorders.

PMID: 31387791 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Modern treatment of tibial shaft fractures: Is there a role today for closed treatment?

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 10/14/2020 - 13:24

Modern treatment of tibial shaft fractures: Is there a role today for closed treatment?

Injury. 2020 Oct 05;:

Authors: Swart E, Lasceski C, Latario L, Jo J, Nguyen UDT

Abstract
PURPOSE: The decision to attempt closed treatment on tibial shaft fractures can be challenging. At our institution, we attempt treatment of nearly all closed, isolated tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to report the results of 10 years of experience to develop a tool to identify patients for whom non-operative treatment of tibial shaft fractures may be a viable option METHOD: This was a retrospective review of patients with tibial shaft fracture seen at a level 1 trauma center over 10 years. Patients with closed, isolated injuries underwent sedation, closed reduction, long-leg casting, and outpatient follow-up. Patients were converted to surgery for inability to obtain or maintain acceptable alignment or patient intolerance. Radiographic characteristics and patient demographics were extracted. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a model to predict which patient and injury characteristics determined success of nonoperative treatment.
RESULTS: 334 patients were identified with isolated, closed tibial shaft fractures, who were reduced and treated in a long leg cast. 234 patients (70%) converted to surgical treatment due to inability to maintain alignment, patient intolerance, and nonunion. In a regression model, coronal/sagittal translation, sagittal angulation, fracture morphology, and smoking status were shown to be significant predictors of success of nonoperative treatment (p < 0.05). We developed a Tibial Operative Outcome Likelihood (TOOL) score designed to help predict success or failure of closed treatment. The TOOL score can be used to identify a subsegment of patients with injuries amenable to closed treatment (38% of injuries) with a nonoperative success rate over 60%.
CONCLUSION: Non-operative treatment of tibial shaft fractures is feasible, although there is a relatively high conversion rate to operative treatment. However, it is possible to use injury characteristics to identify a cohort of patients with a higher chance of success with closed treatment, which is potentially useful in a resource-constrained setting or for patients who wish to avoid surgery.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level 3.

PMID: 33046252 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Risk Assessment of Recreational Noise-Induced Hearing Loss from Exposure through a Personal Audio System-iPod Touch.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 10/14/2020 - 13:24
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Risk Assessment of Recreational Noise-Induced Hearing Loss from Exposure through a Personal Audio System-iPod Touch.

J Am Acad Audiol. 2019 Jul/Aug;30(7):619-633

Authors: Gopal KV, Mills LE, Phillips BS, Nandy R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Recreational noise-induced hearing loss (RNIHL) is a major health issue and presents a huge economic burden on society. Exposure to loud music is not considered hazardous in our society because music is thought to be a source of relaxation and entertainment. However, there is evidence that regardless of the sound source, frequent exposure to loud music, including through personal audio systems (PAS), can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, difficulty processing speech, and increased susceptibility to age-related hearing loss.
PURPOSE: Several studies have documented temporary threshold shifts (TTS) (a risk indicator of future permanent impairment) in subjects that listen to loud music through their PAS. However, there is not enough information regarding volume settings that may be considered to be safe. As a primary step toward quantifying the risk of RNIHL through PAS, we assessed changes in auditory test measures before and after exposure to music through the popular iPod Touch device set at various volume levels.
RESEARCH DESIGN: This project design incorporated aspects of both between- and within-subjects and used repeated measures to analyze individual groups.
STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 40 adults, aged 18-31 years with normal hearing were recruited and randomly distributed to four groups. Each group consisted of five males and five females.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Subjects underwent two rounds of testing (pre- and postmusic exposure), with a 30-min interval, where they listened to a playlist consisting of popular songs through an iPod at 100%, 75%, 50%, or 0% volume (no music). Based on our analysis on the Knowles Electronic Manikin for Acoustic Research, with a standardized 711 coupler, it was determined that listening to the playlist for 30 min through standard earbuds resulted in an average level of 97.0 dBC at 100% volume, 83.3 dBC at 75% volume, and 65.6 dBC at 50% volume. Pure-tone thresholds from 500-8000 Hz, extended high-frequency pure tones between 9-12.5 kHz, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) were obtained before and after the 30-min music exposure. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with two between-subjects factors (volume and gender) and one within-subjects factor (frequency). Change (shift) in auditory test measures was used as the outcome for the ANOVA.
RESULTS: Results indicated significant worsening of pure-tone thresholds following music exposure only in the group that was exposed to 100% volume at the following frequencies: 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz. DPOAEs showed significant decrease at 2000 and 2822 Hz, also only for the 100% volume condition. No significant changes were found between pre- and postmusic exposure measures in groups exposed to 75%, 50%, or 0% volume conditions. Follow-up evaluations conducted a week later indicated that pure-tone thresholds had returned to the premusic exposure levels.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide quantifiable information regarding safe volume control settings on the iPod Touch with standard earbuds. Listening to music using the iPod Touch at 100% volume setting for as little as 30 min leads to TTS and worsening of otoacoustic emissions, a risk for permanent auditory damage.

PMID: 30395532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Prevalence and predictors of weight loss during induction therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 10/13/2020 - 14:25

Prevalence and predictors of weight loss during induction therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Nutrition. 2020 Jul 03;81:110937

Authors: Hill R, Hamby T, Johnson D, Boren C, Downs H, Ray A

Abstract
Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma often experience significant weight gain during induction therapy. However, a subgroup of patients may experience weight loss, which can impact outcomes; thus, identifying and understanding this underrecognized concern is important. Our aim was to identify the prevalence and predictors for weight loss during ALL induction therapy. This was a single-institution retrospective study of 187 patients, ages 2 to 20 y, diagnosed with ALL or lymphoblastic lymphoma. We analyzed weight trends during induction therapy and predictors of weight loss. Significant weight loss (≥5%) occurred in 17% of patients. Having high-risk disease, trisomy 21, overweight/obese status at the time of diagnosis, and/or hyperglycemia were positively associated with weight loss and negatively associated with weight gain during induction therapy. Future studies should aim to better understand the etiology and importance of weight loss during induction therapy.

PMID: 33045486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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