Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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Updated: 2 hours 21 min ago

Patterns of Young Adult Social Roles Transitions Across 24 Months and Subsequent Substance Use and Mental Health.

Thu, 09/24/2020 - 06:12
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Patterns of Young Adult Social Roles Transitions Across 24 Months and Subsequent Substance Use and Mental Health.

J Youth Adolesc. 2020 Apr;49(4):869-880

Authors: Patrick ME, Rhew IC, Duckworth JC, Lewis MA, Abdallah DA, Lee CM

Abstract
Young adults experience social role transitions across multiple life domains, and a deeper understanding of the ways in which these simultaneous transition experiences are associated with substance use and mental health will inform targeted interventions for this population. Data from the current study include24 repeated monthly assessments of young adults (N = 778; 56% female; age range 18 to 24 at baseline; 60% White, 18% Asian, 12% Multiracial, 5% Black or African American, 1% American Indian, 1% Pacific Islander, 3% Other, 9% Latinx) and outcomes 6 months later. Monthly assessments across 2 years were used to identify latent classes of frequency of social role transitions in four key domains (education, residential, employment, and romantic relationships) and associations between these classes and later outcomes. Three classes of social role transitions were identified: Infrequent Transitions (30.4%), Transitions except in Relationships (38.5%), and Frequent Transitions (31.1%). Compared to the Infrequent Transitions class, the other classes had greater typical drinking and hazardous alcohol use six months later; the Frequent Transitions class also had more hazardous cannabis use, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Young adults experiencing frequent transitions across multiple domains appear to be at risk for substance use and mental health problems and may benefit from targeted intervention to address substance use and mental health issues.

PMID: 31588973 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A CD-based mapping method for combining multiple related parameters from heterogeneous intervention trials.

Tue, 09/22/2020 - 07:52
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A CD-based mapping method for combining multiple related parameters from heterogeneous intervention trials.

Stat Interface. 2020;13(4):533-549

Authors: Jiao Y, Mun EY, Trikalinos TA, Xie M

Abstract
Effect size can differ as a function of the elapsed time since treatment or as a function of other key covariates, such as sex or age. In evidence synthesis, a better understanding of the precise conditions under which treatment does work or does not work well has been highly valued. With increasingly accessible individual patient or participant data (IPD), more precise and informative inference can be within our reach. However, simultaneously combining multiple related parameters across heterogeneous studies is challenging because each parameter from each study has a specific interpretation within the context of the study and other covariates in the model. This paper proposes a novel mapping method to combine study-specific estimates of multiple related parameters across heterogeneous studies, which ensures valid inference at all inference levels by combining sample-dependent functions known as Confidence Distributions (CD). We describe the "CD-based mapping method" and provide a data application example for a multivariate random-effects meta-analysis model. We estimated up to 13 study-specific regression parameters for each of 14 individual studies using IPD in the first step, and subsequently combined the study-specific vectors of parameters, yielding a full vector of hyperparameters in the second step of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the CD-based mapping method is robust to model misspecification. This novel approach to multi-parameter synthesis provides a reasonable methodological solution when combining complex evidence using IPD.

PMID: 32952846 [PubMed]

A comparison of Bayesian to maximum likelihood estimation for latent growth models in the presence of a binary outcome.

Tue, 09/22/2020 - 07:52
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A comparison of Bayesian to maximum likelihood estimation for latent growth models in the presence of a binary outcome.

Int J Behav Dev. 2020 Sep;44(5):447-457

Authors: Kim SY, Huh D, Zhou Z, Mun EY

Abstract
Latent growth models (LGMs) are an application of structural equation modeling and frequently used in developmental and clinical research to analyze change over time in longitudinal outcomes. Maximum likelihood (ML), the most common approach for estimating LGMs, can fail to converge or may produce biased estimates in complex LGMs especially in studies with modest samples. Bayesian estimation is a logical alternative to ML for LGMs, but there is a lack of research providing guidance on when Bayesian estimation may be preferable to ML or vice versa. This study compared the performance of Bayesian versus ML estimators for LGMs by evaluating their accuracy via Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. For the MC study, longitudinal data sets were generated and estimated using LGM via both ML and Bayesian estimation with three different priors, and parameter recovery across the two estimators was evaluated to determine their relative performance. The findings suggest that ML estimation is a reasonable choice for most LGMs, unless it fails to converge, which can occur with limiting data situations (i.e., just a few time points, no covariate or outcome, modest sample sizes). When models do not converge using ML, we recommend Bayesian estimation with one caveat that the influence of the priors on estimation may have to be carefully examined, per recent recommendations on Bayesian modeling for applied researchers.

PMID: 32952241 [PubMed]

Effects of Different Sling Settings on Electromyographic Activities of Selected Trunk Muscles: A Preliminary Research.

Tue, 09/22/2020 - 07:52
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Effects of Different Sling Settings on Electromyographic Activities of Selected Trunk Muscles: A Preliminary Research.

Biomed Res Int. 2020;2020:2945952

Authors: Li X, Liu H, Lin KY, Miao P, Zhang BF, Lu SW, Li L, Wang CH

Abstract
Introduction: The supine and prone sling exercise may facilitate activation of the local trunk muscles. Does the side-lying sling exercise activate trunk muscles more easily than the supine and prone training with sling settings? Clinical work has shown that the side-lying sling exercise could reduce pain in patients with unilateral low back pain (LBP), but the mechanism behind it is unclear. The fundamental purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the electromyography (EMG) characteristics of trunk muscles during different sling lumbar settings on sixteen healthy adults.
Methods: Amplitude and mean power frequency (MPF) of EMG signals were recorded from the transversus abdominis (TA), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), erector spinae (ES), gluteus maximus (Gmax), and gluteus medius (Gmed) muscles while the subjects performed the supine lumbar setting (SLS), prone lumbar setting (PLS), left side-lying lumbar setting (LSLS), and right side-lying lumbar setting (RSLS).
Results: During SLS and PLS, TA and MF showed significantly higher activity than RA and ES on the same side, respectively. The EMG activities of ES, TA, MF, Gmax, and Gmed had significant differences between the different sides during LSLS and RSLS, and the dominant-side muscles showed higher activity than the other side. There was no significant difference in core trunk muscles between different sling lumbar settings-only that the SLS of the MF/ES ratio was significantly higher than LSLS and RSLS.
Conclusions: Sling exercises can be an effective measure to enhance MF and TA EMG activity, and the side-lying position can increase dominant-side Gmax and Gmed activity. Side-lying sling training does not activate more core muscles than the supine and prone training. Supine and prone exercise should be preferred over SLT to stabilize the lumbar region because of its high local/global muscle ratio.

PMID: 31998786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Distinguishing Mitochondrial DNA and NUMT Sequences Amplified with the Precision ID mtDNA Whole Genome Panel.

Sun, 09/20/2020 - 06:32
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Distinguishing Mitochondrial DNA and NUMT Sequences Amplified with the Precision ID mtDNA Whole Genome Panel.

Mitochondrion. 2020 Sep 16;:

Authors: Churchill Cihlar J, Strobl C, Lagace R, Muenzler M, Parson W, Budowle B

Abstract
Nuclear mitochondrial DNA segments (NUMTs) are generated via transfer of portions of the mitochondrial genome into the nuclear genome. Given their common origin, there is the possibility that both the mitochondrial and NUMT segments may co-amplify using the same set of primers. Thus, analysis of the variation of the mitochondrial genome must take into account this co-amplification of mitochondrial and NUMT sequences. The study herein builds on data from the study by Strobl et al. [2019], in which multiple point heteroplasmies were called with an "N" to prevent labeling NUMT sequences mimicking mitochondrial heteroplasmy and being interpreted as true mitochondrial in origin sequence variants. Each of these point heteroplasmies was studied in greater detail, both molecularly and bioinformatically, to determine whether NUMT or true mitochondrial DNA variation was present. The bioinformatic and molecular tools available to help distinguish between NUMT and mitochondrial DNA and the effect of NUMT sequences on interpretation were discussed.

PMID: 32949792 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Preliminary Improvements in Dynamic Postural Control after A Group-based Intervention Program for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Brief Report.

Sat, 09/19/2020 - 23:48
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Preliminary Improvements in Dynamic Postural Control after A Group-based Intervention Program for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Brief Report.

Dev Neurorehabil. 2020 Sep 18;:1-5

Authors: Tamplain P, Sherrod GM, Fuchs C, Miller HL

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of a traditional (easy to implement) group-based intervention program on both static and dynamic postural control in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).
METHODS: Sway and stability indices were measured with the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration in Balance (CTSIB) and efficiency of goal-directed movement was measured during a Limits-of-Stability (LoS) task, before and after the intervention program. The intervention involved a total of 10 one-hour group sessions, administered once per week for 10 weeks.
RESULTS: Results indicated significant group increases in dynamic postural control (p <.05). These results suggest it is possible to improve dynamic postural control in this population. This type of intervention does not require any expensive materials, it is feasible, and easy-to-implement to a group of children.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that this simple form of intervention involving fun group activities can significantly improve dynamic postural control in children with DCD.

PMID: 32945221 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cognitions and behaviors related to risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies among young adult women.

Sat, 09/19/2020 - 23:48
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Cognitions and behaviors related to risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies among young adult women.

J Behav Med. 2020 Sep 17;:

Authors: Thompson EL, Litt DM, Griner SB, Lewis MA

Abstract
This study assessed alcohol and sex-related cognitions and behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual expectancies, descriptive norms, and protective behavioral strategies, associated with women's risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy. A national sample of young adults ages 18-20 years was subset to women who were capable of pregnancy and sexually active (n = 422). The outcome was risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy as determined by contraceptive status and heavy-episodic drinking. SAS version 9.4 was used to estimate logistic regression models. Alcohol-related sexual expectancies related to enhancement were significantly associated with increased odds of alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk. In contrast, women who reported the use of more safe sex (non-condom related) protective behavioral strategies (e.g., talk to partner about birth control use) were at decreased odds of alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk. Future interventions to reduce the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies should consider alcohol-related sexual expectancies and safer sex protective behavioral strategies as leverage points.

PMID: 32944846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Genetically Encoded, Phage-Displayed Cyclic-Peptide Library.

Sat, 09/19/2020 - 23:48
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A Genetically Encoded, Phage-Displayed Cyclic-Peptide Library.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2019 10 28;58(44):15904-15909

Authors: Wang XS, Chen PC, Hampton JT, Tharp JM, Reed CA, Das SK, Wang DS, Hayatshahi HS, Shen Y, Liu J, Liu WR

Abstract
Superior to linear peptides in biological activities, cyclic peptides are considered to have great potential as therapeutic agents. To identify cyclic-peptide ligands for therapeutic targets, phage-displayed peptide libraries in which cyclization is achieved by the covalent conjugation of cysteines have been widely used. To resolve drawbacks related to cysteine conjugation, we have invented a phage-display technique in which its displayed peptides are cyclized through a proximity-driven Michael addition reaction between a cysteine and an amber-codon-encoded Nϵ -acryloyl-lysine (AcrK). Using a randomized 6-mer library in which peptides were cyclized at two ends through a cysteine-AcrK linker, we demonstrated the successful selection of potent ligands for TEV protease and HDAC8. All selected cyclic peptide ligands showed 4- to 6-fold stronger affinity to their protein targets than their linear counterparts. We believe this approach will find broad applications in drug discovery.

PMID: 31398275 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Risk of venous thromboembolism in knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis: a general population-based cohort study.

Fri, 09/18/2020 - 06:35
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Risk of venous thromboembolism in knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis: a general population-based cohort study.

Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 Sep 16;:

Authors: Zeng C, Bennell K, Yang Z, Nguyen UDT, Lu N, Wei J, Lei G, Zhang Y

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of immobility and joint replacement, two strong risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). We aimed to examine the relation of knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis to the risk of VTE and investigate joint replacement as a potential mediator.
METHODS: We conducted three cohort studies using data from The Health Improvement Network. Up to five individuals without osteoarthritis were matched to each case of incident knee (n=20 696), hip (n=10 411) or hand (n=6329) osteoarthritis by age, sex, entry time and body mass index. We examined the relation of osteoarthritis to VTE (pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis) using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model.
RESULTS: VTE developed in 327 individuals with knee osteoarthritis and 951 individuals without osteoarthritis (2.7 vs 2.0 per 1000 person-years), with multivariable-adjusted HR being 1.38 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.56). The indirect effect (HR) of knee osteoarthritis on VTE through knee replacement was 1.07 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.15), explaining 24.8% of its total effect on VTE. Risk of VTE was higher in hip osteoarthritis than non-osteoarthritis (3.3 vs 1.8 per 1000 person-years; multivariable-adjusted HR=1.83, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.13). The indirect effect through hip replacement yielded an HR of 1.14 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.25), explaining 28.1% of the total effect. No statistically significant difference in VTE risk was observed between hand osteoarthritis and non-osteoarthritis (1.5 vs 1.6 per 1000 person-years; multivariable-adjusted HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.16).
CONCLUSION: Our large population-based cohort study provides the first evidence that knee or hip osteoarthritis, but not hand osteoarthritis, was associated with an increased risk of VTE, and such an association was partially mediated through knee or hip replacement.

PMID: 32938637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Laparoscopic Versus Open Cholecystectomy in Pediatric Patients: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

Thu, 09/17/2020 - 06:12
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Laparoscopic Versus Open Cholecystectomy in Pediatric Patients: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2020 Mar;30(3):322-327

Authors: Babb J, Davis J, Tashiro J, Perez EA, Sola JE, Pandya S

Abstract
Background: As minimally invasive pediatric surgery becomes standard approach to many surgical solutions, access has become an important point for improvement. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard for many conditions affecting the gallbladder; however, open cholecystectomy (OC) is offered as the initial approach in a surprisingly high percentage of cases. Materials and Methods: The Kids' Inpatient Database (1997-2012) was searched for International Classification of Disease, 9th revision, Clinical Modification procedure code (51.2x). LC and OC performed in patients <20 years old were identified. Propensity score-matched analyses using 39 variables were performed to isolate the effects of race, income group, location, gender, payer status, and hospital size on the percentage of LCs and OCs offered. Cases were weighted to provide national estimates. Results: A total of 78,578 cases were identified, comprising LC (88.1%) and OC (11.9%). Girls were 1.6 (CI: 1.4, 1.7) times more likely to undergo LC versus boys. Large facilities were 1.4 (1.3, 1.7) times more likely to perform LCs than small facilities. Children in lower income quartiles were 1.2 (1.1, 1.3) times more likely to undergo LC compared with those in higher income quartiles. Rates of LC were not affected by race, hospital location, or payer status. Conclusions: Risk-adjusted analysis of a large population-based data set demonstrated evidence that confirms, but also refutes, traditional disparities to minimally invasive surgery access. Despite laparoscopic gold standard, OC remains the initial approach in a surprisingly high percentage of pediatric cases independent of demographics or socioeconomic status. Additional research is required to identify factors affecting the distribution of LC and OC within the pediatric population.

PMID: 32045322 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Aerosol, vapor, or chemicals? College student perceptions of harm from electronic cigarettes and support for a tobacco-free campus policy.

Wed, 09/16/2020 - 17:59
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Aerosol, vapor, or chemicals? College student perceptions of harm from electronic cigarettes and support for a tobacco-free campus policy.

J Am Coll Health. 2020 Sep 15;:1-7

Authors: Rossheim ME, Zhao X, Soule EK, Thombs DL, Suzuki S, Ahmad A, Barnett TE

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study is the first to examine the influence of e-cigarette emission phrasing on perceived harm of secondhand exposure, and whether harm perception was associated with support for a tobacco-free campus policy. Participants: In the fall 2018 and spring 2019 semesters, 52 sections of a college English course (N = 791 students) were cluster randomized to one of three conditions ("vapor," "aerosol," or "chemicals") assessing harm of secondhand exposure to e-cigarette emissions. Methods: Regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics, tobacco use, and other potential confounders. Results: Compared to the "vapor" condition, "chemicals" and "aerosol" conditions were associated with increased odds of perceiving secondhand exposure to e-cigarettes to be harmful/very harmful (AOR = 2.0, p < 0.01). Greater perceived harm of secondhand e-cigarette exposure was associated with increased odds of supporting a tobacco-free campus policy (AOR = 2.22, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Health campaigns should use accurate terminology to describe e-cigarette emissions, rather than jargon that conveys lower risk.

PMID: 32931725 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Climate change and dengue fever knowledge, attitudes and practices in Bangladesh: a social media-based cross-sectional survey.

Wed, 09/16/2020 - 17:59
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Climate change and dengue fever knowledge, attitudes and practices in Bangladesh: a social media-based cross-sectional survey.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 15;:

Authors: Rahman MS, Karamehic-Muratovic A, Baghbanzadeh M, Amrin M, Zafar S, Rahman NN, Shirina SU, Haque U

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh experienced its worst dengue fever (DF) outbreak in 2019. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among university students in Bangladesh and significant factors associated with their prevention practices related to climate change and DF.
METHODS: A social media-based (Facebook) cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted and secondary data of reported DF cases in 2019 extracted. Logistic regression and spatial analysis were run to examine the data.
RESULTS: Of 1500 respondents, 76% believed that climate change can affect DF transmission. However, participants reported good climate change knowledge (76.7%), attitudes (87.9%) and practices (39.1%). The corresponding figures for DF were knowledge (47.9%), attitudes (80.3%) and practices (25.9%). Good knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with good climate change adaptation or mitigation practices (p<0.05). Good knowledge, attitudes and previous DF experiences were also found to be significantly associated with good DF prevention practices (p<0.001). There was no significant positive correlation between climate change and DF KAP scores and the number of DF cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study provide baseline data that can be used to promote educational campaigns and intervention programs focusing on climate change adaptation and mitigation and effective DF prevention strategies among various communities in Bangladesh and similar dengue-endemic countries.

PMID: 32930796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Are Health Care Professionals Prepared to Implement Human Papillomavirus Testing? A Review of Psychosocial Determinants of Human Papillomavirus Test Acceptability in Primary Cervical Cancer Screening.

Wed, 09/16/2020 - 17:59
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Are Health Care Professionals Prepared to Implement Human Papillomavirus Testing? A Review of Psychosocial Determinants of Human Papillomavirus Test Acceptability in Primary Cervical Cancer Screening.

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2020 03;29(3):390-405

Authors: Tatar O, Wade K, McBride E, Thompson E, Head KJ, Perez S, Shapiro GK, Waller J, Zimet G, Rosberger Z

Abstract
Background: Guidelines for cervical cancer screening have been updated to include human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, which is more sensitive compared to cytology in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Because of its increased sensitivity, a negative HPV test is more reassuring for a woman that she is at low risk for precancerous cervical lesions than a negative Pap test. Prompted by the inadequate translation of HPV test-based screening guidelines into practice, we aimed to synthesize the literature regarding health care providers (HCPs) knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV testing and the influence of psychosocial factors on HCPs acceptability of HPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening. Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health, and Web of Science for journal articles from January 1, 1980 to July 25, 2018. A narrative synthesis of HCPs knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV testing is provided. Informed by the Patient Pathway framework, we used deductive thematic analysis to synthesize the influence of psychosocial factors on HCPs acceptability of HPV testing. Results: The most important HCP knowledge gaps are related to the superior sensitivity of the HPV test and age-specific guideline recommendations for HPV testing. Thirty to fifty percent of HCPs are not compliant with guideline recommendations for HPV testing, for example, screening at shorter intervals than recommended. Barriers, facilitators, and contradictory evidence of HCPs' acceptability of the HPV test are grouped by category: (1) factors related to the HCP; (2) patient intrinsic factors; (3) factors corresponding to HCP's practice environment; and (4) health care system factors. Conclusions: HCP's adherence to guidelines for HPV testing in cervical cancer screening is suboptimal and could be improved by specialty organizations ensuring consistency across guidelines. Targeted educational interventions to address barriers of HPV test acceptability identified in this review may facilitate the translation of HPV testing recommendations into practice.

PMID: 31479381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Non-Invasive Cerebral Perfusion and Oxygenation Monitoring Augment Prolonged Field Care in a Non-Human Primate Model of Decompensated Hemorrhage and Resuscitation.

Tue, 09/15/2020 - 05:07

Non-Invasive Cerebral Perfusion and Oxygenation Monitoring Augment Prolonged Field Care in a Non-Human Primate Model of Decompensated Hemorrhage and Resuscitation.

Shock. 2020 Sep 09;:

Authors: Morgan CG, Neidert LE, Stigall KS, Rodriguez GJ, Pratt GA, Lonowski D, Harrell K, McNeal ND, Tiller MM, Cardin S, Glaser JJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Decompensated hemorrhagic shock (DHS) is the leading cause of preventable death in combat casualties. "Golden hour" resuscitation effects on cerebral blood flow and perfusion following DHS in prolonged field care (PFC) are not well investigated. Using an established non-human primate model of DHS, we hypothesized non-invasive regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2) and Transcranial Doppler (TCD) would correlate to the invasive measurement of partial pressure of oxygen (PtO2) and Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) in guiding hypotensive resuscitation in a PFC setting.
METHODS: Ten rhesus macaques underwent DHS followed by a 2hr PFC phase (T0-T120), and subsequent 4hr hospital resuscitation phase (T120-T360). Invasive monitoring (PtO2, MAP) were compared against non-invasive monitoring systems (rSO2, TCD). Results were analyzed using t-tests and one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Linear correlation was determined via Pearson's r. Significance = p < 0.05.
RESULTS: MAP, PtO2, rSO2 and MFV significantly decreased from baseline at T0. MAP and PtO2 were restored to baseline by T15, while rSO2 was delayed through T30. At T120, MFV returned to baseline, while the Pulsatility Index significantly elevated by T120 (1.50 ± 0.31). PtO2 vs rSO2 (R = 0.2099) and MAP vs MFV (R = 0.2891) shared very weak effect sizes, MAP vs rSO2 (R = 0.4636) displayed a low effect size, and PtO2 vs MFV displayed a moderate effect size (R = 0.5540).
CONCLUSIONS: Though non-invasive monitoring methods assessed here did not correlate strongly enough against invasive methods to warrant a surrogate in the field, they do effectively augment and direct resuscitation, while potentially serving as a substitute in the absence of invasive capabilities.

PMID: 32925606 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Nationwide trends in stroke hospitalizations among patients with prediabetes.

Tue, 09/15/2020 - 05:07

Nationwide trends in stroke hospitalizations among patients with prediabetes.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 2020 Oct;30:100622

Authors: Fong HK, Gandhi Z, Lodhi MU, Savani S, Desai V, Desai R

PMID: 32923577 [PubMed]

Copan microFLOQ® Direct Swab collection of bloodstains, saliva, and semen on cotton cloth.

Tue, 09/15/2020 - 05:07
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Copan microFLOQ® Direct Swab collection of bloodstains, saliva, and semen on cotton cloth.

Int J Legal Med. 2020 Jan;134(1):45-54

Authors: Sherier AJ, Kieser RE, Novroski NMM, Wendt FR, King JL, Woerner AE, Ambers A, Garofano P, Budowle B

Abstract
The microFLOQ® Direct Swab was tested by sampling diluted blood, semen, and saliva stains deposited on cotton cloth. DNA typing was performed using the PowerPlex® Fusion 6C System by direct PCR or a modified direct PCR. Direct PCR of swabs sampled the center of a stain, compared to their respective edge samplings, and had higher profile completeness and total relative fluorescent units (RFU) for all dilutions of blood and semen stains tested. The modified direct PCR used template DNA eluted from the swab head using the Casework Direct Kit, Custom and washes either contained 1-thioglycerol (TG) additive or no TG. Modified direct PCR had mixed results for blood, saliva, and semen stains, with semen stains showing significant differences in profile completeness (5% and 1%) and total RFU (neat, 5% and 1%) with the addition of TG to the Casework Direct Reagent. No significant difference was seen in any dilution of blood or saliva stains processed with the modified direct PCR, but profile completeness and total RFU were improved overall compared to stains swabbed with cotton swabs or 4N6FLOQSwabs™. This study supports the hypothesis that the microFLOQ® Direct Swab is able to collect minute amounts of DNA from cotton cloth and may be considered as an alternate pre-screening methodology in forensic biology casework.

PMID: 31165261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The effects of a single session of chiropractic care on strength, cortical drive, and spinal excitability in stroke patients.

Tue, 09/15/2020 - 05:07
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The effects of a single session of chiropractic care on strength, cortical drive, and spinal excitability in stroke patients.

Sci Rep. 2019 02 25;9(1):2673

Authors: Holt K, Niazi IK, Nedergaard RW, Duehr J, Amjad I, Shafique M, Anwar MN, Ndetan H, Turker KS, Haavik H

Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate whether a single session of chiropractic care could increase strength in weak plantar flexor muscles in chronic stroke patients. Maximum voluntary contractions (strength) of the plantar flexors, soleus evoked V-waves (cortical drive), and H-reflexes were recorded in 12 chronic stroke patients, with plantar flexor muscle weakness, using a randomized controlled crossover design. Outcomes were assessed pre and post a chiropractic care intervention and a passive movement control. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to asses within and between group differences. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Following the chiropractic care intervention there was a significant increase in strength (F (1,11) = 14.49, p = 0.002; avg 64.2 ± 77.7%) and V-wave/Mmax ratio (F(1,11) = 9.67, p = 0.009; avg 54.0 ± 65.2%) compared to the control intervention. There was a significant strength decrease of 26.4 ± 15.5% (p = 0.001) after the control intervention. There were no other significant differences. Plantar flexor muscle strength increased in chronic stroke patients after a single session of chiropractic care. An increase in V-wave amplitude combined with no significant changes in H-reflex parameters suggests this increased strength is likely modulated at a supraspinal level. Further research is required to investigate the longer term and potential functional effects of chiropractic care in stroke recovery.

PMID: 30804399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Leukocyte expression profiles reveal gene sets with prognostic value for seizure-free outcome following stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy.

Tue, 09/15/2020 - 05:07
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Leukocyte expression profiles reveal gene sets with prognostic value for seizure-free outcome following stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy.

Sci Rep. 2019 01 31;9(1):1086

Authors: Sprissler R, Bina R, Kasoff W, Witte MH, Bernas M, Walter C, Labiner DM, Lau B, Hammer MF, Weinand ME

Abstract
Among patients with intractable epilepsy, the most commonly performed surgical procedure is craniotomy for amygdalohippocampectomy (AH). Stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy (SLAH) has also been recently employed as a minimally invasive treatment for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Among patients treated with AH and SLAH approximately 65% and 54% of patients become seizure-free, respectively. Therefore, selection criteria for surgical candidates with improved prognostic value for post-operative seizure-free outcome are greatly needed. In this study, we perform RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) on whole blood leukocyte samples taken from 16 patients with intractable TLE prior to SLAH to test the hypothesis that pre-operative leukocyte RNA expression profiles are prognostic for post-operative seizure outcome. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the RNA expression data indicated separate clustering of patients with seizure free (SF) and non-seizure-free (NSF) outcomes. Differential expression (DE) analysis performed on SF versus NSF groups revealed 24 significantly differentially expressed genes (≥2.0-fold change, p-value < 0.05, FDR <0.05). Network and pathway analyses identified differential activation of pathways involved in lipid metabolism, morphology of oligodendrocytes, inflammatory response, and development of astrocytes. These results suggest that pre-operative leukocyte expression profiles have prognostic value for seizure outcome following SLAH.

PMID: 30705324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Adolescents and sexual risk-taking: The interplay of constraining relationship beliefs, healthy sex attitudes, and romantic attachment insecurity.

Sat, 09/12/2020 - 05:45

Adolescents and sexual risk-taking: The interplay of constraining relationship beliefs, healthy sex attitudes, and romantic attachment insecurity.

J Adolesc. 2020 Sep 08;84:136-148

Authors: Saint-Eloi Cadely H, Finnegan V, Spears EC, Kerpelman JL

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Although sexual exploration during adolescence may be perceived as normative, many adolescents who are sexually active are likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors detrimental to their well-being. The present study examined the influence of insecure attachment (anxious and avoidant dimensions), healthy sex attitudes, and constraining relationship beliefs on the following sexual risk indicators: age at first sex, number of sexual partners, condom use, length of time knowing sexual partners, seriousness of relationship, and frequency of sex.
METHODS: Cross-sectional data from two cohorts recruited one year apart for a five-year project were analyzed. Adolescents were public high school students from a Southern state in the USA (cohort 1: N = 878, 51.1% females, M = 16.50 years old; cohort 2: N = 759, 46.9% females, M = 15.78 years old).
RESULTS: Across both cohorts, healthy sex attitudes were related to having sex for the first time at an older age, having less sexual partners in a lifetime, and knowing one's sexual partner longer. High scores on the avoidant attachment dimension were related to less commitment to the relationship. This dimension also was related to holding lower scores on healthy sex attitudes, which in turn was related to having more sexual partners and knowing one's sexual partner for a shorter time. Although not replicated, higher endorsement of constraining relationship beliefs was associated with inconsistent condom use and greater sex frequency.
CONCLUSION: Findings suggests that attachment insecurity, healthy sex attitudes, and constraining relationship beliefs work together to influence adolescent sexual risks.

PMID: 32916596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An Elective Course in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health and Practice Issues.

Sat, 09/12/2020 - 05:45
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An Elective Course in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health and Practice Issues.

Am J Pharm Educ. 2019 10;83(8):6967

Authors: Jann MW, Penzak S, White A, Tatachar A

Abstract
Objective. To design, implement and assess a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health and practice elective course for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods. The course focused on health promotion, health care barriers, disease prevention, and treatment throughout an LGBT person's lifespan. The course included topic discussions, reading assignments, various active-learning activities, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with a transgender person, and guest speakers from the LGBT community. Five quizzes were administered during the course that were mapped to specific session learning objectives and course learning outcomes. Students completed an anonymous pre- and post-course survey on the seven course learning outcomes to assess their knowledge and skills regarding the health of LGBT people. Results. Students exhibited significant learning with improvement in the seven course learning outcomes. The two most improved course learning outcomes were the medications used for LGBT people and summarizing health care resources available to LGBT people. The content of student portfolios included general themes of discrimination, health care access problems, advocacy, inclusive pharmacy environments, and desire to be a better practitioner. More than 91% of the students actively engaged the guest speakers from the LGBT community. Student performance on quizzes and in the OSCE activity was excellent. The capstone presentations covered a variety of topics including LGBT in Islam. Conclusion. Students demonstrated knowledge of the unique health care issues among the LGBT community. This elective course provides a framework for other pharmacy programs to incorporate LGBT health topics into the curriculum and to engage with their local LGBT community.

PMID: 31831892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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