Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Do Brief Alcohol Interventions Reduce Driving After Drinking Among College Students? A Two-step Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data

Tue, 02/16/2021 - 05:00

Alcohol Alcohol. 2021 Feb 16:agaa146. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agaa146. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

AIMS: College students who drink are at an increased risk of driving after drinking and alcohol-involved traffic accidents and deaths. Furthermore, the persistence of driving after drinking over time underscores a need for effective interventions to prevent future drunk driving in adulthood. The present study examined whether brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) for college students reduce driving after drinking.

METHODS: A two-step meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) was conducted using a combined sample of 6801 college students from 15 randomized controlled trials (38% male, 72% White and 58% first-year students). BAIs included individually delivered Motivational Interviewing with Personalized Feedback (MI + PF), Group Motivational Interviewing (GMI), and stand-alone Personalized Feedback (PF) interventions. Two outcome variables, driving after two+/three+ drinks and driving after four+/five+ drinks, were checked, harmonized and analyzed separately for each study and then combined for meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis.

RESULTS: BAIs lowered the risk of driving after four+/five+ drinks (19% difference in the odds of driving after drinking favoring BAIs vs. control), but not the risk of driving after two+/three+ drinks (9% difference). Subsequent subgroup analysis indicated that the MI + PF intervention was comparatively better than PF or GMI.

CONCLUSIONS: BAIs provide a harm reduction approach to college drinking. Hence, it is encouraging that BAIs reduce the risk of driving after heavy drinking among college students. However, there may be opportunities to enhance the intervention content and timing to be more relevant for driving after drinking and improve the outcome assessment and reporting to demonstrate its effect.

PMID:33592624 | DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agaa146

Oral Immunotherapy with Human Secretory IgA Improves Survival in the Hamster Model of Clostridioides difficile Infection

Mon, 02/15/2021 - 05:00

J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 15:jiab087. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab087. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Co-administration of human secretory IgA (sIgA) together with subtherapeutic vancomycin significantly enhanced survival in the Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) hamster model . Vancomycin (5 or 10 mg/kgx5 days) + healthy donor plasma sIgA/monomeric IgA (TIDx21 days) or hyperimmune sIgA/monomeric IgA (BIDx13 days) enhanced survival of CDI hamsters. Survival curves were significantly improved compared to vancomycin alone (p=0.018 and 0.039 by log-rank (Mantel-Cox) for healthy, and hyperimmune, sIgA, respectively. Passive immunization with sIgA made with recombinant human secretory component and IgA dimer/polymer from pooled human plasma can be administered orally, and prevents lethal infection in a partially treated CDI hamster model.

PMID:33588433 | DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiab087

Correlates of HPV Vaccination Intentions Among Adults Ages 27-45 Years Old in the U.S

Mon, 02/15/2021 - 05:00

J Community Health. 2021 Feb 13. doi: 10.1007/s10900-021-00968-3. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

HPV vaccine is recommended for 27-45 year olds in the U.S. based on a shared clinical decision. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of adults 27-45 years old and the association with the likelihood of asking a healthcare provider about the HPV vaccine and the likelihood of getting the HPV vaccine. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of U.S. adults aged 27-45 years between April-May 2020 (n = 691). Primary outcomes were likelihood of asking their provider about the HPV vaccine and likelihood of getting the HPV vaccine. Demographic variables, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were covariates. Adjusted models were estimated for each outcome variable with a Poisson distribution and log function. More than half (55.7%) were likely to ask their provider about the HPV vaccine, but less than half (42.9%) were likely to get the HPV vaccine. Likelihood of asking their provider about the HPV vaccine was significantly associated with perceived likelihood of benefitting from the vaccine (aOR = 2.45; 95%CI = 1.69-3.57). Likelihood of receiving the vaccine was associated with attitudes (aOR = 1.04; 95%CI = 1.01-1.07), perceived effectiveness against HPV infection (aOR = 4.03; 95%CI = 1.20-13.53), and perceived likelihood of benefitting from the vaccine (aOR = 4.31; 95%CI = 2.64-7.03). Our findings suggest increasing positive attitudes, perceived effectiveness against infection, and perceived likelihood of benefitting from the vaccination are important factors to address when facilitating a shared clinical decision for HPV vaccination. Understanding factors associated with likelihood of discussing and receiving the HPV vaccine among people aged 27-45 years is important to successfully implement the guidelines for shared clinical decision-making.

PMID:33586085 | DOI:10.1007/s10900-021-00968-3

Ecological Momentary Assessment of Alcohol Consumption and Its Concordance with Transdermal Alcohol Detection and Timeline Follow-Back Self-report Among Adults Experiencing Homelessness

Sun, 02/14/2021 - 05:00

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2021 Feb 13. doi: 10.1111/acer.14571. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined concordance of alcohol use as measured by ecological momentary assessment (EMA) self-reports, transdermal alcohol concentration readings via the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM), and retrospective self-reports via the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) among adults experiencing homelessness.

METHODS: Forty-nine adults who reported alcohol misuse (Mean age = 47, SD = 9; 57% Black; 82% men) were recruited from a homeless shelter. For four weeks, alcohol use was assessed: (1) five times or more per day by EMA, (2) every 30 minutes by a SCRAM device worn on the ankle, and (3) by TLFB for the past month at the end of the study period. There were 1,389 days of observations for 49 participants for alcohol use and alcohol use intensity.

RESULTS: EMA and SCRAM alcohol use data agreed on 73% of days, with an interrater agreement Kappa = 0.46. A multilevel analysis of concordance of three measures for alcohol use yielded statistically significant correlations of 0.40 (day-level) and 0.63 (person-level) between EMA and SCRAM. Alcohol use was detected on 49%, 38%, and 33% of days by EMA, SCRAM, and TLFB, respectively. For alcohol use intensity, EMA and SCRAM resulted in statistically significant correlations of 0.46 (day-level) and 0.78 (person-level). The concordance of TLFB with either EMA or SCRAM was weak, especially at the day level.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine concordance of alcohol use estimates using EMA, SCRAM, and TLFB methods in adults experiencing homelessness. EMA is a valid approach to quantifying alcohol use, especially given its relatively low cost, low participant burden, and ease of use. Furthermore, any stigma associated with wearing the SCRAM or reporting alcohol use in person may be attenuated by using EMA, which may be appealing for use in studies of stigmatized and underserved populations.

PMID:33583057 | DOI:10.1111/acer.14571

Internalizing Symptoms, Alcohol Use, and Protective Behavioral Strategies: Associations with Regretted Sexual Experiences of College Students.

Sat, 02/13/2021 - 10:05
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Internalizing Symptoms, Alcohol Use, and Protective Behavioral Strategies: Associations with Regretted Sexual Experiences of College Students.

J Affect Disord. 2021 Feb 02;283:363-372

Authors: Peterson R, Dvorak RD, Woerner J, Lewis MA

Abstract
One of the most pervasive forms of regret, often connected to alcohol use, is sexual regret. Lifetime rates of regretted sexual experiences (RSE) for college students is between 29%-71.9%, with 31.8% endorsing past year RSE and 31.7% stating alcohol negatively influenced decision making. While past research has focused on psychological symptoms following sexual assault, psychological effects and subsequent outcomes of RSE remains under-studied. Whether a history of sexual regret is associated with mental health symptoms, alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy (PBS) use in the past month was analyzed. Participants (n = 1,394; 57.68% females, 26.96% racial/ethnic minority) reported on internalizing symptoms (anxiety, depression, trauma symptoms, and suicidal ideation) and externalizing and protective behaviors (problematic alcohol use and PBS). It was hypothesized that those with a history of RSE would report heightened current psychological symptoms compared to those without a history of RSE, regardless of when the RSE occurred. Of the n = 1,394 participants, 39.96% reported sexual regret and 26.11% endorsed a history of sexual victimization. Results indicate that among participants with an RSE, past month symptoms of anxiety, depression, trauma, and suicidal ideation were heightened. A similar pattern emerged for problematic alcohol use, as those with a history of RSE engaged in more problematic alcohol use in the past month. For PBS, those with a history of RSE engaged in fewer PBS than those without. Understanding these factors may provide novel insight for mental health prevention efforts and intervention targets for individuals who experience sexual regret.

PMID: 33578350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Assessing college students' interest in university-based oral health information and services.

Sat, 02/13/2021 - 10:05
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Assessing college students' interest in university-based oral health information and services.

J Am Coll Health. 2021 Feb 12;:1-5

Authors: Griner SB, Vamos CA, Phillips AC, Puccio JA, Thompson EL, Daley EM

Abstract
Objective: To assess US college students' (1) oral health behaviors and (2) interest in university-based oral health information and services. Participants: Students at a large public university in the southeast participated in the survey (n = 102). All participants were over the age of 18 and able to speak and read English. Methods:An online quantitative survey was administered to collect information on oral health behaviors, interest in university-based oral health information and services, and sociodemographic factors. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and bivariate analyses were utilized for this study. Results: Approximately 11% of students rated their oral health as fair/poor and 27% currently had a dental problem. Over half (53%) were interested in receiving oral health information from the university, 87% felt campus-based dental services were important, and 79% were likely to use campus-based dental services. Conclusions: College students may benefit from information and services to promote oral health within the college context.

PMID: 33577423 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Long-Acting D3 Partial Agonist MC-25-41 Attenuates Motivation for Cocaine in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Sat, 02/13/2021 - 10:05
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The Long-Acting D3 Partial Agonist MC-25-41 Attenuates Motivation for Cocaine in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Biomolecules. 2020 07 18;10(7):

Authors: Powell GL, Namba MD, Vannan A, Bonadonna JP, Carlson A, Mendoza R, Chen PJ, Luetdke RR, Blass BE, Neisewander JL

Abstract
The dopamine D3 receptor is a prime target for developing treatments for cocaine use disorders (CUDs). In this study, we conducted a pre-clinical investigation of the therapeutic potential of a long-acting, D3 receptor partial agonist, MC-25-41. Male rats were pre-treated with MC-25-41 (vehicle, 1.0, 3.0, 5.6, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (IP)) five minutes prior to tests of cocaine or sucrose intake on either a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement or a variable interval 60 s multiple schedule consisting of 4, 15-min components with sucrose or cocaine available in alternating components. A separate cohort of rats was tested on a within-session, dose-reduction procedure to determine the effects of MC-25-41 on demand for cocaine using a behavioral economics analysis. Finally, rats were tested for effects of MC-25-41 on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion. MC-25-41 failed to alter locomotion, but reduced reinforcement rates for both cocaine and sucrose on the low-effort, multiple schedule. However, on the higher-effort, progressive ratio schedule of cocaine reinforcement, MC-25-41 reduced infusions, and active lever presses at doses that did not alter sucrose intake. The behavioral economics analysis showed that MC-25-41 also increased cocaine demand elasticity compared to vehicle, indicating a reduction in consumption as price increases. Together, these results suggest that similar to other D3-selective antagonists and partial agonists, MC-25-41 reduces motivation for cocaine under conditions of high cost but has the added advantage of a long half-life (>10 h). These findings suggest that MC-25-41 may be a suitable pre-clinical lead compound for development of medications to treat CUDs.

PMID: 32708461 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Proteomics Complementation of the Rat Uterotrophic Assay for Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors: A Roadmap of Advancing High Resolution Mass Spectrometry-Based Shotgun Survey to Targeted Biomarker Quantifications.

Fri, 02/12/2021 - 07:03
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Proteomics Complementation of the Rat Uterotrophic Assay for Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors: A Roadmap of Advancing High Resolution Mass Spectrometry-Based Shotgun Survey to Targeted Biomarker Quantifications.

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Feb 08;22(4):

Authors: Prokai L, Rahlouni F, Zaman K, Nguyen V, Prokai-Tatrai K

Abstract
The widely used rat uterotrophic assay to assess known and potential estrogenic compounds only considers uterine weight gain as endpoint measurement. To complement this method with an advanced technology that reveals molecular targets, we analyzed changes in protein expression using label-free quantitative proteomics by nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry from uterine protein extracts of ovariectomized rats after daily 17β-estradiol exposure for five days in comparison with those of vehicle-treated control animals. Our discovery-driven study revealed 165 uterine proteins significantly regulated by estrogen treatment and mapped by pathway analyses. Estrogen-regulated proteins represented cell death, survival and development, cellular growth and proliferation, and protein synthesis as top molecular and cellular functions, and a network found with the presence of nuclear estrogen receptor(s) as a prominent molecular node confirmed the relevance of our findings to hormone-associated events. An exploratory application of targeted proteomics to bisphenol A as a well-known example of an estrogenic endocrine disruptor is also presented. Overall, the results of this study have demonstrated the power of combining untargeted and targeted quantitative proteomic strategies to identify and verify candidate molecular markers for the evaluation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals to complement a conventional bioassay.

PMID: 33567512 [PubMed - in process]

"I Struggle with Breast Cancer and I Struggle with God": Insights from African Americans Breast Cancer Survivors.

Thu, 02/11/2021 - 07:02
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"I Struggle with Breast Cancer and I Struggle with God": Insights from African Americans Breast Cancer Survivors.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2021 Feb 10;:

Authors: Mkuu RS, Harvey IS, Brown E, Spears EC, Jira MG, Johnson KL, Montour T, Alexander J

Abstract
PURPOSE: Recognizing that spiritual and religious beliefs are personal and vary within communities, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the influence of these beliefs on experiences with breast cancer care and social support among African American Christian breast cancer survivors.
METHODS: Forty-seven African American breast cancer survivors participated in focus groups (n = 7) in three northeastern urban cities. We used thematic analyses to identify major themes.
RESULTS: Three themes emerged relating to how spirituality influenced participants' cancer journeys: (1) struggling with God, (2) reclaiming my power, and (3) needing religious social support. Participants described the rhythmic flow of their spiritual beliefs as they navigated their lived experiences during diagnosis, treatment, and post-treatment. Spirituality was intimately intertwined with their illness experience as they grappled with their health and well-being.
CONCLUSIONS: Participants used spirituality as an avenue to cope and navigate through their diagnosis and treatment. These spiritual relationships created "church families" and provided the survivors' access to cancer support groups, financial support, and therapeutic support. Our findings support faith-based approaches to health promotion and call for more studies to understand the influence of religion on health.

PMID: 33566333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Discordance Between Perinatal Alcohol Use Among Women and Provider Counseling for Alcohol Use: An Assessment of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

Thu, 02/11/2021 - 07:02
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Discordance Between Perinatal Alcohol Use Among Women and Provider Counseling for Alcohol Use: An Assessment of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

Public Health Rep. 2021 Feb 09;:33354920984146

Authors: Thompson EL, Barnett TE, Litt DM, Spears EC, Lewis MA

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In the United States, guidelines indicate all pregnant women should be screened for and counseled on alcohol use to prevent adverse perinatal outcomes due to alcohol consumption. The objective of this study was to describe sociodemographic factors associated with receipt of prenatal alcohol counseling and perinatal alcohol use among US women.
METHODS: State health departments collected data for the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Phase 7 during 2012-2015, and we restricted the sample to a complete case analysis (N = 135 111). The 3 dichotomous outcomes were preconception alcohol use (3 months before pregnancy), prenatal alcohol use (during last 3 months of pregnancy), and prenatal alcohol counseling. Predictor variables were age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, education, marital status, health insurance status, and previous live births. We estimated survey-weighted logistic regression models for each outcome.
RESULTS: Half (56.0%) of pregnant women reported preconception alcohol use, 70.5% received prenatal alcohol counseling, and 7.7% reported prenatal alcohol use during the last 3 months of pregnancy. Black women were significantly less likely than White women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.46-0.52) and Hispanic women were significantly less likely than non-Hispanic women (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.58-0.66) to report preconception alcohol use. We found similar patterns for prenatal alcohol use among Black women. Black women were significantly more likely than White women (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.55-1.77) and Hispanic women were significantly more likely than non-Hispanic women (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.40-1.61) to receive prenatal alcohol counseling. We found similar patterns for age, education, and health insurance status.
CONCLUSION: Disparities in alcohol counseling occurred despite the national recommendation for universal screening and counseling prenatally. Continued integration of universal screening for alcohol use during pregnancy is needed.

PMID: 33563096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Correction: Doum, D., et al. Dengue Seroprevalence and Seroconversion in Urban and Rural Populations in Northeastern Thailand and Southern Laos. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9134.

Wed, 02/10/2021 - 07:35
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Correction: Doum, D., et al. Dengue Seroprevalence and Seroconversion in Urban and Rural Populations in Northeastern Thailand and Southern Laos. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9134.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Feb 04;18(4):

Authors: Doum D, Overgaard HJ, Mayxay M, Suttiprapa S, Saichua P, Ekalaksananan T, Tongchai P, Rahman MS, Haque U, Phommachanh S, Pongvongsa T, Rocklöv J, Paul R, Pientong C

Abstract
There was an error in the original article [...].

PMID: 33557444 [PubMed]

The Impact of Grantsmanship Self-Efficacy on Early Stage Investigators of The National Research Mentoring Network Steps Toward Academic Research (NRMN STAR).

Wed, 02/10/2021 - 07:35
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The Impact of Grantsmanship Self-Efficacy on Early Stage Investigators of The National Research Mentoring Network Steps Toward Academic Research (NRMN STAR).

Ethn Dis. 2020;30(1):75-82

Authors: Thorpe RJ, Vishwanatha JK, Harwood EM, Krug EL, Unold T, Boman KE, Jones HP

Abstract
The NRMN STAR program was created to address the persistent underrepresentation in grant submissions and receipt of National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards by racial/ethnic minority groups. In our current study, we assessed program impact on trainees' self-efficacy related to grant writing. The program was conducted with two cohorts: one in June 2014 and one in June 2015. We used a 19-item grant writing self-efficacy scale drawn from the 88-item Clinical Research Assessment Inventory of three domains (conceptualizing, designing, and funding a study) to predict whether self-efficacy influences researchers' grant submissions. Trainees were assessed prior to and following program completion with subsequent assessments at 6 and 12 months beyond participation. The majority of trainees were Black (62%), female (62%), and had obtained a PhD (90%). More than half (52%) were assistant professors and 57% had none or <1 year of research experience beyond postdoctoral training. However, 24% of trainees reported no postdoctoral research training. NRMN STAR trainees' self-efficacy significantly improved on all three domains exhibiting a 2.0-point mean change score on two domains (conceptualizing and design) and 3.7 point mean change score on the domain, funding a study. Findings suggest that NRMN's STAR provides impactful, confidence-building training for diverse, early stage investigators with little-to-no skills, experiences, or low self-efficacy in writing research grants.

PMID: 31969786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hepatopancreatobiliary Fellowship Graduates: Where do They Stand today?

Wed, 02/10/2021 - 05:00

Am Surg. 2021 Feb 10:3134821995066. doi: 10.1177/0003134821995066. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Americas Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA) Education and Training Committee standardized a Hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) Surgery Fellowship certification process in 2010. Several classes of fellows have since graduated from HPB, combined Society of Surgical Oncology/AHPBA, and combined American Society of Transplant Surgeons/AHPBA fellowships, but there is little information on their career outcomes. We seek to offer long-term data on the careers of HPB fellowship graduates.

METHODS: A 26-question anonymous survey was distributed among graduates of accredited programs for the last 10 years. We generated descriptive statistics from the responses.

RESULTS: The respondents were evenly distributed in terms of graduation years between 2010 and 2019. Fifty-eight percent of fellows had completed a prior fellowship, 82% received 1 to 3 job offers during the fellowship, and 75% of respondents were still at their first job. The majority of graduates (>60%) were able to secure a job with a >50% HPB practice and >40 HPB cases per year within 3 years of graduation. Overall, >90% candidates rated their satisfaction with fellowship training greater than 8 out of 10.

DISCUSSION: This survey helps shed light on the early formative years in the practices of HPB fellowship graduates. These data show that HPB fellowship training is essential and effective in providing job security and helps fellowship graduates develop a gratifying practice.

PMID:33565895 | DOI:10.1177/0003134821995066

Reply.

Tue, 02/09/2021 - 07:34
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Reply.

Ophthalmol Glaucoma. 2021 Feb 04;:

Authors: Vold SD, Williamson BK, Hirsch L, Aminlari AE, Cho AS, Nelson C, Dickerson JE

PMID: 33551370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Shorter length of hospital stay for hip fracture in those with dementia and without a known diagnosis of osteoporosis in the USA.

Tue, 02/09/2021 - 07:34
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Shorter length of hospital stay for hip fracture in those with dementia and without a known diagnosis of osteoporosis in the USA.

BMC Geriatr. 2020 12 03;20(1):523

Authors: Rasu RS, Zalmai R, Karpes Matusevich AR, Hunt SL, Phadnis MA, Rianon N

Abstract
BACKGROUND: About 50% of all hospitalized fragility fracture cases in older Americans are hip fractures. Approximately 3/4 of fracture-related costs in the USA are attributable to hip fractures, and these are mostly covered by Medicare. Hip fracture patients with dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, have worse health outcomes including longer hospital length of stay (LOS) and charges. LOS and hospital charges for dementia patients are usually higher than for those without dementia. Research describing LOS and acute care charges for hip fractures has mostly focused on these outcomes in trauma patients without a known pre-admission diagnosis of osteoporosis (OP). Lack of documented diagnosis put patients at risk of not having an appropriate treatment plan for OP. Whether having a diagnosis of OP would have an effect on hospital outcomes in dementia patients has not been explored. We aim to investigate whether having a diagnosis of OP, dementia, or both has an effect on LOS and hospital charges. In addition, we also report prevalence of common comorbidities in the study population and their effects on hospital outcomes.
METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of claims data (2012-2013) for 2175 Medicare beneficiaries (≥65 years) in the USA.
RESULTS: Compared to those without OP or dementia, patients with demenia only had a shorter LOS (by 5%; P = .04). Median LOS was 6 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 5-7), and the median hospital charges were $45,100 (IQR: 31,500 - 65,600). In general, White patients had a shorter LOS (by 7%), and those with CHF and ischemic heart disease (IHD) had longer LOS (by 7 and 4%, respectively). Hospital charges were 6% lower for women, and 16% lower for White patients.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study evaluating LOS in dementia in the context of hip fracture which also disagrees with previous reporting about longer LOS in dementia patients. Patients with CHF and IHD remains at high risk for longer LOS regardless of their diagnosis of dementia or OP.

PMID: 33272213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Federal Trade Commission's mandated Four Loko labeling fails to facilitate accurate estimation of alcohol content by college students.

Tue, 02/09/2021 - 07:34
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The Federal Trade Commission's mandated Four Loko labeling fails to facilitate accurate estimation of alcohol content by college students.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2020 07 03;46(4):430-437

Authors: Rossheim ME, Yurasek AM, Greene KM, Gonzalez-Pons KM, Barry AE, Thombs DL, Trangenstein PJ, Nelson C, Cavazos T, Treffers RD, Jernigan DH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Four Loko, the leading supersized alcopop brand, is a pre-mixed alcoholic beverage containing up to 5.5 standard alcoholic drinks in a can. In 2013, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) mandated the addition to Four Loko cans of a label indicating its alcohol content in standard drinks, presented as "alcohol per serving" and "servings per container."
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated whether college students accurately estimate the alcohol content in cans of Four Loko bearing the FTC mandated labels.
METHOD: Undergraduate student drinkers (n = 833; 51.6% women) in three states (Florida, Montana, and Virginia) were provided an empty Watermelon Four Loko can and asked to determine the number of standard drinks it contained, using 12-ounce regular beer (Budweiser) equivalents. In Florida and Virginia, Watermelon Four Loko contains 4.70 standard alcoholic drinks; in Montana, it contains 3.13.
RESULTS: More than 60% of Florida students and more than 70% of Virginia students underestimated Four Loko's alcohol content by one or more standard drinks, compared to 45% of Montana students. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found the following variables were associated with greater odds of underestimating Four Loko's alcohol content by one or more standard alcoholic drinks: being female (AOR = 2.2), having never seen nor heard of Four Loko (AOR = 1.9), and residing in Florida (AOR = 1.7) or Virginia (AOR = 2.8) versus Montana.
CONCLUSIONS: Students were far less likely to underestimate alcohol content for 8% alcohol-by-volume (abv) cans compared to those with higher alcohol concentrations. Thus, policies restricting supersized alcopops' abv may help consumers better estimate their alcohol content.

PMID: 31592678 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Underage drinkers' first experience consuming a popular brand of supersized alcopop.

Tue, 02/09/2021 - 07:34
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Underage drinkers' first experience consuming a popular brand of supersized alcopop.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2020 07 03;46(4):421-429

Authors: Rossheim ME, Greene KM, Yurasek AM, Barry AE, Gonzalez-Pons KM, Trangenstein PJ, Cavazos T, Nelson C, Treffers RD, Thombs DL, Jernigan DH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Supersized alcopops are sugar sweetened beverages with high alcohol concentration; Four Loko is the most commonly consumed brand among underage drinkers.
OBJECTIVES: The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of Four Loko consumption, as well as drinking location, beverage source, quantity consumed, and alcohol-related consequences among students who consumed the product before age 21.
METHODS: Undergraduate drinkers (n = 1,019; 53.5% female) attending public universities in Florida, Montana, and Virginia completed a classroom survey. Multivariable logistic regression models examined first-time Four Loko experiences among students under age 21 at the time of the drinking episode (n = 336).
RESULTS: Among drinkers, 46% had consumed Four Loko. The vast majority (93%) drank the product before age 21. During their first Four Loko drinking episode, 57% consumed at least one can and 10% drank two or more cans. Among underage drinkers, being male (AOR = 6.8), paying for the Four Loko (AOR = 3.1), and earlier age of alcohol initiation (AOR = 0.8) were associated with greater odds of drinking at least one can. Among underage drinkers who finished at least one can, 36% blacked out and 21% vomited. The odds of blacking out and vomiting were greater if the participant drank at least one can (AOR = 6.0, AOR = 4.0). Students in states that sold Four Loko with higher alcohol-by-volume were more likely to blackout (AOR = 2.0) and vomit (AOR = 2.5).
CONCLUSIONS: Delaying the age of first alcohol use may have protective effects on supersized alcopop consumption. Increased enforcement of existing laws is needed to prevent underage access to Four Loko. Further, laws that reduce the alcohol content of Four Loko may reduce negative consequences associated with its consumption.

PMID: 31442085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Is Golf a Contact Sport? Protection of the Spine and Return to Play After Lumbar Surgery.

Mon, 02/08/2021 - 07:24
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Is Golf a Contact Sport? Protection of the Spine and Return to Play After Lumbar Surgery.

Global Spine J. 2021 Feb 05;:2192568220983291

Authors: Haddas R, Pipkin W, Hellman D, Voronov L, Kwon YH, Guyer R

Abstract
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review.
OBJECTIVE: To address the gap in the literature on specific return to play protocols and rehabilitation regimens for golfers undergoing lumbar spine surgery with a high impact swing.
METHODS: This review did not involve patient care or any clinical prospective or retrospective review of patient information and thus did not warrant institutional review board approval. The available literature of PubMed, Medline, and OVID was utilized to review the existing literature.
RESULTS: Studies have shown that the forces through the lumbar spine in the modern-era golf swing are like other contact sports. Methods of protecting the lumbar spine include proper swing mechanics, abdominal and paraspinal musculature strengthening and flexibility as well as physical fitness. There are a variety of treatment options available to treat lumbar spine pathology each with a different return to play recommendations from doctors in the field.
CONCLUSIONS: With the introduction of a high impact, modern-era swing to the game of golf, the pathology is seen in the lumbar spine of both young, old, professional, and amateur golfers with low back pain are similar to other athletes in contact sports. Surgery is effective in returning athletes to a similar level of play even though no protocols exist for an effective and safe return. There have been many studies conducted to determine appropriate treatment and return to play for these injuries, but there is a gap in the literature on specific return to play protocols and rehabilitation regimens for golfers undergoing lumbar spine surgery with a high impact swing. As return to competitive play is important, especially with professional golfers, studies combining the use of swing mechanics changes, rehabilitation regimens and the type of surgery performed would be able to provide some insight into this topic now that golf may begin to be considered a contact sport.

PMID: 33541112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A change of mind: globus pallidus activity and effective connectivity during changes in choice selections

Mon, 02/08/2021 - 05:00

Eur J Neurosci. 2021 Feb 8. doi: 10.1111/ejn.15142. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected subcortical nuclei that plays a key role in multiple motor and cognitive processes, in a close interplay with several cortical regions. Two conflicting theories postulate that the basal ganglia pathways can either foster or suppress the cortico-striatal output or, alternatively, they can stabilise or destabilise the cortico-striatal circuit dynamics. These different approaches significantly impact the understanding of observable behaviours and cognitive processes in healthy, as well as clinical populations. We investigated the predictions of these models in healthy participants (N=28), using dynamic causal modelling of fMRI BOLD activity to estimate time- and context-dependent changes in the indirect pathway effective connectivity, in association with repetitions or changes of choice selections. We used two multi-option tasks that required the participants to adapt to uncontrollable environmental changes, by performing sequential choice selections, with and without value-based feedbacks. We found that, irrespective of the task, the trials that were characterised by changes in choice selections (switch trials) were associated with a neural response that mostly overlapped with a network commonly described for the encoding of uncertainty. More interestingly, dynamic causal modelling and family-wise model comparison identified with high likelihood a directed causal relation from the external to the internal part of the globus pallidus (i.e. the short indirect pathway in the basal ganglia), in association with the switch trials. This finding supports the hypothesis that the short indirect pathway in the basal ganglia drives instability in the network dynamics, resulting in changes in choice selection.

PMID:33556221 | DOI:10.1111/ejn.15142

Autophagy stimulation reduces ocular hypertension in murine glaucoma model via autophagic degradation of mutant myocilin.

Fri, 02/05/2021 - 07:53

Autophagy stimulation reduces ocular hypertension in murine glaucoma model via autophagic degradation of mutant myocilin.

JCI Insight. 2021 Feb 04;:

Authors: Kasetti RB, Maddineni P, Kiehlbauch CC, Patil S, Searby CC, Levine B, Sheffield VC, Zode GS

Abstract
Elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to trabecular meshwork (TM) damage is associated with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG). Myocilin mutations resulting in elevated IOP are the most common genetic cause of POAG. We have previously shown that mutant myocilin accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induces chronic ER stress, leading to TM damage and IOP elevation. However, it is not understood how chronic ER stress leads to TM dysfunction and loss. Here, we report that mutant myocilin activates autophagy but it is functionally impairecd in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and in a mouse model of myocilin-associated POAG (Tg-MYOCY437H). Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy worsens mutant myocilin accumulation and exacerbates IOP elevation in Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Remarkably, impaired autophagy is associated with chronic ER stress-induced transcriptional factor, CHOP. Deletion of CHOP corrects impaired autophagy, enhances recognition and degradation of mutant myocilin by autophagy,and reduces glaucoma in Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Stimulating autophagic flux via Tat-beclin 1 peptide or torin 2, promotes autophagic degradation of mutant myocilin and reduces elevated IOP in Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Together, our studies provide a novel treatment strategy for myocilin-associated POAG by correcting impaired autophagy in the TM.

PMID: 33539326 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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