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Risk of venous thromboembolism in knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis: a general population-based cohort study.

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Risk of venous thromboembolism in knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis: a general population-based cohort study.

Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 Sep 16;:

Authors: Zeng C, Bennell K, Yang Z, Nguyen UDT, Lu N, Wei J, Lei G, Zhang Y

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of immobility and joint replacement, two strong risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). We aimed to examine the relation of knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis to the risk of VTE and investigate joint replacement as a potential mediator.
METHODS: We conducted three cohort studies using data from The Health Improvement Network. Up to five individuals without osteoarthritis were matched to each case of incident knee (n=20 696), hip (n=10 411) or hand (n=6329) osteoarthritis by age, sex, entry time and body mass index. We examined the relation of osteoarthritis to VTE (pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis) using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model.
RESULTS: VTE developed in 327 individuals with knee osteoarthritis and 951 individuals without osteoarthritis (2.7 vs 2.0 per 1000 person-years), with multivariable-adjusted HR being 1.38 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.56). The indirect effect (HR) of knee osteoarthritis on VTE through knee replacement was 1.07 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.15), explaining 24.8% of its total effect on VTE. Risk of VTE was higher in hip osteoarthritis than non-osteoarthritis (3.3 vs 1.8 per 1000 person-years; multivariable-adjusted HR=1.83, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.13). The indirect effect through hip replacement yielded an HR of 1.14 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.25), explaining 28.1% of the total effect. No statistically significant difference in VTE risk was observed between hand osteoarthritis and non-osteoarthritis (1.5 vs 1.6 per 1000 person-years; multivariable-adjusted HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.16).
CONCLUSION: Our large population-based cohort study provides the first evidence that knee or hip osteoarthritis, but not hand osteoarthritis, was associated with an increased risk of VTE, and such an association was partially mediated through knee or hip replacement.

PMID: 32938637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Laparoscopic Versus Open Cholecystectomy in Pediatric Patients: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 09/17/2020 - 06:12
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Laparoscopic Versus Open Cholecystectomy in Pediatric Patients: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2020 Mar;30(3):322-327

Authors: Babb J, Davis J, Tashiro J, Perez EA, Sola JE, Pandya S

Abstract
Background: As minimally invasive pediatric surgery becomes standard approach to many surgical solutions, access has become an important point for improvement. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard for many conditions affecting the gallbladder; however, open cholecystectomy (OC) is offered as the initial approach in a surprisingly high percentage of cases. Materials and Methods: The Kids' Inpatient Database (1997-2012) was searched for International Classification of Disease, 9th revision, Clinical Modification procedure code (51.2x). LC and OC performed in patients <20 years old were identified. Propensity score-matched analyses using 39 variables were performed to isolate the effects of race, income group, location, gender, payer status, and hospital size on the percentage of LCs and OCs offered. Cases were weighted to provide national estimates. Results: A total of 78,578 cases were identified, comprising LC (88.1%) and OC (11.9%). Girls were 1.6 (CI: 1.4, 1.7) times more likely to undergo LC versus boys. Large facilities were 1.4 (1.3, 1.7) times more likely to perform LCs than small facilities. Children in lower income quartiles were 1.2 (1.1, 1.3) times more likely to undergo LC compared with those in higher income quartiles. Rates of LC were not affected by race, hospital location, or payer status. Conclusions: Risk-adjusted analysis of a large population-based data set demonstrated evidence that confirms, but also refutes, traditional disparities to minimally invasive surgery access. Despite laparoscopic gold standard, OC remains the initial approach in a surprisingly high percentage of pediatric cases independent of demographics or socioeconomic status. Additional research is required to identify factors affecting the distribution of LC and OC within the pediatric population.

PMID: 32045322 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Aerosol, vapor, or chemicals? College student perceptions of harm from electronic cigarettes and support for a tobacco-free campus policy.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 09/16/2020 - 17:59
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Aerosol, vapor, or chemicals? College student perceptions of harm from electronic cigarettes and support for a tobacco-free campus policy.

J Am Coll Health. 2020 Sep 15;:1-7

Authors: Rossheim ME, Zhao X, Soule EK, Thombs DL, Suzuki S, Ahmad A, Barnett TE

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study is the first to examine the influence of e-cigarette emission phrasing on perceived harm of secondhand exposure, and whether harm perception was associated with support for a tobacco-free campus policy. Participants: In the fall 2018 and spring 2019 semesters, 52 sections of a college English course (N = 791 students) were cluster randomized to one of three conditions ("vapor," "aerosol," or "chemicals") assessing harm of secondhand exposure to e-cigarette emissions. Methods: Regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics, tobacco use, and other potential confounders. Results: Compared to the "vapor" condition, "chemicals" and "aerosol" conditions were associated with increased odds of perceiving secondhand exposure to e-cigarettes to be harmful/very harmful (AOR = 2.0, p < 0.01). Greater perceived harm of secondhand e-cigarette exposure was associated with increased odds of supporting a tobacco-free campus policy (AOR = 2.22, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Health campaigns should use accurate terminology to describe e-cigarette emissions, rather than jargon that conveys lower risk.

PMID: 32931725 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Climate change and dengue fever knowledge, attitudes and practices in Bangladesh: a social media-based cross-sectional survey.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 09/16/2020 - 17:59
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Climate change and dengue fever knowledge, attitudes and practices in Bangladesh: a social media-based cross-sectional survey.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 15;:

Authors: Rahman MS, Karamehic-Muratovic A, Baghbanzadeh M, Amrin M, Zafar S, Rahman NN, Shirina SU, Haque U

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh experienced its worst dengue fever (DF) outbreak in 2019. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among university students in Bangladesh and significant factors associated with their prevention practices related to climate change and DF.
METHODS: A social media-based (Facebook) cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted and secondary data of reported DF cases in 2019 extracted. Logistic regression and spatial analysis were run to examine the data.
RESULTS: Of 1500 respondents, 76% believed that climate change can affect DF transmission. However, participants reported good climate change knowledge (76.7%), attitudes (87.9%) and practices (39.1%). The corresponding figures for DF were knowledge (47.9%), attitudes (80.3%) and practices (25.9%). Good knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with good climate change adaptation or mitigation practices (p<0.05). Good knowledge, attitudes and previous DF experiences were also found to be significantly associated with good DF prevention practices (p<0.001). There was no significant positive correlation between climate change and DF KAP scores and the number of DF cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study provide baseline data that can be used to promote educational campaigns and intervention programs focusing on climate change adaptation and mitigation and effective DF prevention strategies among various communities in Bangladesh and similar dengue-endemic countries.

PMID: 32930796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Are Health Care Professionals Prepared to Implement Human Papillomavirus Testing? A Review of Psychosocial Determinants of Human Papillomavirus Test Acceptability in Primary Cervical Cancer Screening.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 09/16/2020 - 17:59
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Are Health Care Professionals Prepared to Implement Human Papillomavirus Testing? A Review of Psychosocial Determinants of Human Papillomavirus Test Acceptability in Primary Cervical Cancer Screening.

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2020 03;29(3):390-405

Authors: Tatar O, Wade K, McBride E, Thompson E, Head KJ, Perez S, Shapiro GK, Waller J, Zimet G, Rosberger Z

Abstract
Background: Guidelines for cervical cancer screening have been updated to include human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, which is more sensitive compared to cytology in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Because of its increased sensitivity, a negative HPV test is more reassuring for a woman that she is at low risk for precancerous cervical lesions than a negative Pap test. Prompted by the inadequate translation of HPV test-based screening guidelines into practice, we aimed to synthesize the literature regarding health care providers (HCPs) knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV testing and the influence of psychosocial factors on HCPs acceptability of HPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening. Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health, and Web of Science for journal articles from January 1, 1980 to July 25, 2018. A narrative synthesis of HCPs knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV testing is provided. Informed by the Patient Pathway framework, we used deductive thematic analysis to synthesize the influence of psychosocial factors on HCPs acceptability of HPV testing. Results: The most important HCP knowledge gaps are related to the superior sensitivity of the HPV test and age-specific guideline recommendations for HPV testing. Thirty to fifty percent of HCPs are not compliant with guideline recommendations for HPV testing, for example, screening at shorter intervals than recommended. Barriers, facilitators, and contradictory evidence of HCPs' acceptability of the HPV test are grouped by category: (1) factors related to the HCP; (2) patient intrinsic factors; (3) factors corresponding to HCP's practice environment; and (4) health care system factors. Conclusions: HCP's adherence to guidelines for HPV testing in cervical cancer screening is suboptimal and could be improved by specialty organizations ensuring consistency across guidelines. Targeted educational interventions to address barriers of HPV test acceptability identified in this review may facilitate the translation of HPV testing recommendations into practice.

PMID: 31479381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Non-Invasive Cerebral Perfusion and Oxygenation Monitoring Augment Prolonged Field Care in a Non-Human Primate Model of Decompensated Hemorrhage and Resuscitation.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 09/15/2020 - 05:07

Non-Invasive Cerebral Perfusion and Oxygenation Monitoring Augment Prolonged Field Care in a Non-Human Primate Model of Decompensated Hemorrhage and Resuscitation.

Shock. 2020 Sep 09;:

Authors: Morgan CG, Neidert LE, Stigall KS, Rodriguez GJ, Pratt GA, Lonowski D, Harrell K, McNeal ND, Tiller MM, Cardin S, Glaser JJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Decompensated hemorrhagic shock (DHS) is the leading cause of preventable death in combat casualties. "Golden hour" resuscitation effects on cerebral blood flow and perfusion following DHS in prolonged field care (PFC) are not well investigated. Using an established non-human primate model of DHS, we hypothesized non-invasive regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2) and Transcranial Doppler (TCD) would correlate to the invasive measurement of partial pressure of oxygen (PtO2) and Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) in guiding hypotensive resuscitation in a PFC setting.
METHODS: Ten rhesus macaques underwent DHS followed by a 2hr PFC phase (T0-T120), and subsequent 4hr hospital resuscitation phase (T120-T360). Invasive monitoring (PtO2, MAP) were compared against non-invasive monitoring systems (rSO2, TCD). Results were analyzed using t-tests and one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Linear correlation was determined via Pearson's r. Significance = p < 0.05.
RESULTS: MAP, PtO2, rSO2 and MFV significantly decreased from baseline at T0. MAP and PtO2 were restored to baseline by T15, while rSO2 was delayed through T30. At T120, MFV returned to baseline, while the Pulsatility Index significantly elevated by T120 (1.50 ± 0.31). PtO2 vs rSO2 (R = 0.2099) and MAP vs MFV (R = 0.2891) shared very weak effect sizes, MAP vs rSO2 (R = 0.4636) displayed a low effect size, and PtO2 vs MFV displayed a moderate effect size (R = 0.5540).
CONCLUSIONS: Though non-invasive monitoring methods assessed here did not correlate strongly enough against invasive methods to warrant a surrogate in the field, they do effectively augment and direct resuscitation, while potentially serving as a substitute in the absence of invasive capabilities.

PMID: 32925606 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Nationwide trends in stroke hospitalizations among patients with prediabetes.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 09/15/2020 - 05:07

Nationwide trends in stroke hospitalizations among patients with prediabetes.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 2020 Oct;30:100622

Authors: Fong HK, Gandhi Z, Lodhi MU, Savani S, Desai V, Desai R

PMID: 32923577 [PubMed]

Copan microFLOQ® Direct Swab collection of bloodstains, saliva, and semen on cotton cloth.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 09/15/2020 - 05:07
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Copan microFLOQ® Direct Swab collection of bloodstains, saliva, and semen on cotton cloth.

Int J Legal Med. 2020 Jan;134(1):45-54

Authors: Sherier AJ, Kieser RE, Novroski NMM, Wendt FR, King JL, Woerner AE, Ambers A, Garofano P, Budowle B

Abstract
The microFLOQ® Direct Swab was tested by sampling diluted blood, semen, and saliva stains deposited on cotton cloth. DNA typing was performed using the PowerPlex® Fusion 6C System by direct PCR or a modified direct PCR. Direct PCR of swabs sampled the center of a stain, compared to their respective edge samplings, and had higher profile completeness and total relative fluorescent units (RFU) for all dilutions of blood and semen stains tested. The modified direct PCR used template DNA eluted from the swab head using the Casework Direct Kit, Custom and washes either contained 1-thioglycerol (TG) additive or no TG. Modified direct PCR had mixed results for blood, saliva, and semen stains, with semen stains showing significant differences in profile completeness (5% and 1%) and total RFU (neat, 5% and 1%) with the addition of TG to the Casework Direct Reagent. No significant difference was seen in any dilution of blood or saliva stains processed with the modified direct PCR, but profile completeness and total RFU were improved overall compared to stains swabbed with cotton swabs or 4N6FLOQSwabs™. This study supports the hypothesis that the microFLOQ® Direct Swab is able to collect minute amounts of DNA from cotton cloth and may be considered as an alternate pre-screening methodology in forensic biology casework.

PMID: 31165261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The effects of a single session of chiropractic care on strength, cortical drive, and spinal excitability in stroke patients.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 09/15/2020 - 05:07
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The effects of a single session of chiropractic care on strength, cortical drive, and spinal excitability in stroke patients.

Sci Rep. 2019 02 25;9(1):2673

Authors: Holt K, Niazi IK, Nedergaard RW, Duehr J, Amjad I, Shafique M, Anwar MN, Ndetan H, Turker KS, Haavik H

Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate whether a single session of chiropractic care could increase strength in weak plantar flexor muscles in chronic stroke patients. Maximum voluntary contractions (strength) of the plantar flexors, soleus evoked V-waves (cortical drive), and H-reflexes were recorded in 12 chronic stroke patients, with plantar flexor muscle weakness, using a randomized controlled crossover design. Outcomes were assessed pre and post a chiropractic care intervention and a passive movement control. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to asses within and between group differences. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Following the chiropractic care intervention there was a significant increase in strength (F (1,11) = 14.49, p = 0.002; avg 64.2 ± 77.7%) and V-wave/Mmax ratio (F(1,11) = 9.67, p = 0.009; avg 54.0 ± 65.2%) compared to the control intervention. There was a significant strength decrease of 26.4 ± 15.5% (p = 0.001) after the control intervention. There were no other significant differences. Plantar flexor muscle strength increased in chronic stroke patients after a single session of chiropractic care. An increase in V-wave amplitude combined with no significant changes in H-reflex parameters suggests this increased strength is likely modulated at a supraspinal level. Further research is required to investigate the longer term and potential functional effects of chiropractic care in stroke recovery.

PMID: 30804399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Leukocyte expression profiles reveal gene sets with prognostic value for seizure-free outcome following stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 09/15/2020 - 05:07
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Leukocyte expression profiles reveal gene sets with prognostic value for seizure-free outcome following stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy.

Sci Rep. 2019 01 31;9(1):1086

Authors: Sprissler R, Bina R, Kasoff W, Witte MH, Bernas M, Walter C, Labiner DM, Lau B, Hammer MF, Weinand ME

Abstract
Among patients with intractable epilepsy, the most commonly performed surgical procedure is craniotomy for amygdalohippocampectomy (AH). Stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy (SLAH) has also been recently employed as a minimally invasive treatment for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Among patients treated with AH and SLAH approximately 65% and 54% of patients become seizure-free, respectively. Therefore, selection criteria for surgical candidates with improved prognostic value for post-operative seizure-free outcome are greatly needed. In this study, we perform RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) on whole blood leukocyte samples taken from 16 patients with intractable TLE prior to SLAH to test the hypothesis that pre-operative leukocyte RNA expression profiles are prognostic for post-operative seizure outcome. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the RNA expression data indicated separate clustering of patients with seizure free (SF) and non-seizure-free (NSF) outcomes. Differential expression (DE) analysis performed on SF versus NSF groups revealed 24 significantly differentially expressed genes (≥2.0-fold change, p-value < 0.05, FDR <0.05). Network and pathway analyses identified differential activation of pathways involved in lipid metabolism, morphology of oligodendrocytes, inflammatory response, and development of astrocytes. These results suggest that pre-operative leukocyte expression profiles have prognostic value for seizure outcome following SLAH.

PMID: 30705324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Adolescents and sexual risk-taking: The interplay of constraining relationship beliefs, healthy sex attitudes, and romantic attachment insecurity.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 09/12/2020 - 05:45

Adolescents and sexual risk-taking: The interplay of constraining relationship beliefs, healthy sex attitudes, and romantic attachment insecurity.

J Adolesc. 2020 Sep 08;84:136-148

Authors: Saint-Eloi Cadely H, Finnegan V, Spears EC, Kerpelman JL

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Although sexual exploration during adolescence may be perceived as normative, many adolescents who are sexually active are likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors detrimental to their well-being. The present study examined the influence of insecure attachment (anxious and avoidant dimensions), healthy sex attitudes, and constraining relationship beliefs on the following sexual risk indicators: age at first sex, number of sexual partners, condom use, length of time knowing sexual partners, seriousness of relationship, and frequency of sex.
METHODS: Cross-sectional data from two cohorts recruited one year apart for a five-year project were analyzed. Adolescents were public high school students from a Southern state in the USA (cohort 1: N = 878, 51.1% females, M = 16.50 years old; cohort 2: N = 759, 46.9% females, M = 15.78 years old).
RESULTS: Across both cohorts, healthy sex attitudes were related to having sex for the first time at an older age, having less sexual partners in a lifetime, and knowing one's sexual partner longer. High scores on the avoidant attachment dimension were related to less commitment to the relationship. This dimension also was related to holding lower scores on healthy sex attitudes, which in turn was related to having more sexual partners and knowing one's sexual partner for a shorter time. Although not replicated, higher endorsement of constraining relationship beliefs was associated with inconsistent condom use and greater sex frequency.
CONCLUSION: Findings suggests that attachment insecurity, healthy sex attitudes, and constraining relationship beliefs work together to influence adolescent sexual risks.

PMID: 32916596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An Elective Course in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health and Practice Issues.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 09/12/2020 - 05:45
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An Elective Course in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health and Practice Issues.

Am J Pharm Educ. 2019 10;83(8):6967

Authors: Jann MW, Penzak S, White A, Tatachar A

Abstract
Objective. To design, implement and assess a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health and practice elective course for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods. The course focused on health promotion, health care barriers, disease prevention, and treatment throughout an LGBT person's lifespan. The course included topic discussions, reading assignments, various active-learning activities, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with a transgender person, and guest speakers from the LGBT community. Five quizzes were administered during the course that were mapped to specific session learning objectives and course learning outcomes. Students completed an anonymous pre- and post-course survey on the seven course learning outcomes to assess their knowledge and skills regarding the health of LGBT people. Results. Students exhibited significant learning with improvement in the seven course learning outcomes. The two most improved course learning outcomes were the medications used for LGBT people and summarizing health care resources available to LGBT people. The content of student portfolios included general themes of discrimination, health care access problems, advocacy, inclusive pharmacy environments, and desire to be a better practitioner. More than 91% of the students actively engaged the guest speakers from the LGBT community. Student performance on quizzes and in the OSCE activity was excellent. The capstone presentations covered a variety of topics including LGBT in Islam. Conclusion. Students demonstrated knowledge of the unique health care issues among the LGBT community. This elective course provides a framework for other pharmacy programs to incorporate LGBT health topics into the curriculum and to engage with their local LGBT community.

PMID: 31831892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

CONNECT: Implementation of a School-Based Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth in the Cherokee Nation.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 09/12/2020 - 05:45
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CONNECT: Implementation of a School-Based Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth in the Cherokee Nation.

J Sch Health. 2019 11;89(11):874-882

Authors: Garrett BA, Komro KA, Merlo LJ, Livingston BJ, Rentmeester S, Tobler A, Livingston MD, Kominsky TK

Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is growing optimism regarding the use of screening and brief intervention (SBI) to identify and reduce risk behaviors during adolescence. However, understanding successful SBI implementation remains unclear. We previously reported the effects of CONNECT, a school-based SBI, on reducing the primary outcome, the rate of monthly alcohol use among primarily American Indian (AI) and White high school students in the Cherokee Nation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation process for CONNECT.
METHOD: CONNECT was designed to reduce alcohol use with 2 key strategies: (1) SBI with motivational interviewing (MI), implemented by a school-based CONNECT coach, and (2) a media campaign.
RESULTS: Implementation results indicate that during each semester of the 2-1/2 years, between 73% and 100% of eligible students had at least one 15-minute meeting with a CONNECT coach. Postcards and posters with positive communication tips for parents were displayed in CONNECT communities. No statistically significant differences occurred between the CONNECT and control groups on the hypothesized intermediate outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe implementation of a universal, school-based, culturally adapted SBI that was effective in reducing alcohol use among youth living in the Cherokee Nation. Schools provide an important context for universal delivery of SBI interventions, such as CONNECT, for diverse adolescent populations, including AI youth.

PMID: 31478206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A novel serum free primary astrocyte culture method that mimic quiescent astrocyte phenotype.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 09/12/2020 - 05:45
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A novel serum free primary astrocyte culture method that mimic quiescent astrocyte phenotype.

J Neurosci Methods. 2019 05 15;320:50-63

Authors: Prah J, Winters A, Chaudhari K, Hersh J, Liu R, Yang SH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Primary astrocyte cultures have been used for decades to study astrocyte functions in health and disease. The current primary astrocyte cultures are mostly maintained in serum-containing medium which produces astrocytes with a reactive phenotype as compared to in vivo quiescent astrocytes. The aim of this study was to establish a serum-free astrocyte culture medium that maintains primary astrocytes in a quiescent state.
NEW METHOD: Serum free astrocyte base medium (ABM) supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (ABM-FGF2-EGF) or serum supplemented DMEM (MD-10%FBS) was used to culture primary astrocytes isolated from cerebral cortex of postnatal day 1 C57BL/6 mice.
RESULTS: Compared to astrocytes cultured in MD-10%FBS medium, astrocytes in ABM-FGF2-EGF had higher process bearing morphologies similar to in vivo astrocytes. Western blot, immunostaining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and metabolic assays revealed that astrocytes maintained in ABM-FGF2-EGF had enhanced glycolytic metabolism, higher glycogen content, lower GFAP expression, increased glutamine synthase, and glutamate transporter-1 mRNA levels as compared to astrocytes cultured in MD-10% FBS medium.
COMPARISON TO EXISTING METHODS: These observations suggest that astrocytes cultured in ABM-FGF2-EGF media compared to the usual FBS media promote quiescent and biosynthetic phenotype similar to in vivo astrocytes.
CONCLUSION: This media provides a novel method for studying astrocytes functions in vitro under physiological and pathological conditions.

PMID: 30904500 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Estrogen receptor involvement in vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia pathogenesis and treatment.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 09/10/2020 - 07:54

Estrogen receptor involvement in vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia pathogenesis and treatment.

Geroscience. 2020 Sep 09;:

Authors: Nguyen DH, Cunningham JT, Sumien N

Abstract
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a term that encompasses a continuum of cognitive disorders with cerebrovascular pathology contribution, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to vascular dementia (VaD). VCI and VaD, thus, represent an interesting intersection between cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a rising area of research in recent years. Although VCI and VaD research has identified various causes and explanations for disease development, many aspects remain unclear, particularly sex differences in VCI (e.g., epidemiology), unlike those available for cardiovascular disease and AD. Despite limited information in the literature, several studies have observed an association of estrogen receptor (ER) polymorphisms and VaD. If further explored, this association could provide valuable insights for novel therapeutic approaches. This review aims to provide a brief epidemiological overview and subsequent discussion exploring concepts of brain aging and involvement of estrogen receptors in potential mechanisms of VCI/VaD pathogenesis and treatment development.

PMID: 32902819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Predicting Patient Reported Outcomes of Cognitive Function Using Connectome-Based Predictive Modeling in Breast Cancer.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 09/10/2020 - 07:54
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Predicting Patient Reported Outcomes of Cognitive Function Using Connectome-Based Predictive Modeling in Breast Cancer.

Brain Topogr. 2020 01;33(1):135-142

Authors: Henneghan AM, Gibbons C, Harrison RA, Edwards ML, Rao V, Blayney DW, Palesh O, Kesler SR

Abstract
Being able to predict who will likely experience cancer related cognitive impairment (CRCI) could enhance patient care and potentially reduce economic and human costs associated with this adverse event. We aimed to determine if post-treatment patient reported CRCI could also be predicted from baseline resting state fMRI in patients with breast cancer. 76 newly diagnosed patients (n = 42 planned for chemotherapy; n = 34 not planned for chemotherapy) and 50 healthy female controls were assessed at 3 times points [T1 (prior to treatment); T2 (1 month post chemotherapy); T3 (1 year after T2)], and at yoked intervals for controls. Data collection included self-reported executive dysfunction, memory function, and psychological distress and resting state fMRI data converted to connectome matrices for each participant. Statistical analyses included linear mixed modeling, independent t tests, and connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM). Executive dysfunction increased over time in the chemotherapy group and was stable in the other two groups (p < 0.001). Memory function decreased over time in both patient groups compared to controls (p < 0.001). CPM models successfully predicted executive dysfunction and memory function scores (r > 0.31, p < 0.002). Support vector regression with a radial basis function (SVR RBF) showed the highest performance for executive dysfunction and memory function (r = 0.68; r = 0.44, p's < 0.001). Baseline neuroimaging may be useful for predicting patient reported cognitive outcomes which could assist in identifying patients in need of surveillance and/or early intervention for treatment-related cognitive effects.

PMID: 31745689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Probing the Assembly of HDL Mimetic, Drug Carrying Nanoparticles Using Intrinsic Fluorescence.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 09/09/2020 - 06:36
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Probing the Assembly of HDL Mimetic, Drug Carrying Nanoparticles Using Intrinsic Fluorescence.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2020 04;373(1):113-121

Authors: Raut S, Garud A, Nagarajan B, Sabnis N, Remaley A, Fudala R, Gryczynski I, Gryczynski Z, Dzyuba SV, Borejdo J, Lacko A

Abstract
Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) containing apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) mimics the structure and function of endogenous (human plasma) HDL due to its function and potential therapeutic utility in atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory diseases. Recently, a new class of HDL mimetics has emerged, involving peptides with amino acid sequences that simulate the the primary structure of the amphipathic alpha helices within the Apo A-I protein. The findings reported in this communication were obtained using a similar amphiphilic peptide (modified via conjugation of a myristic acid residue at the amino terminal aspartic acid) that self-assembles (by itself) into nanoparticles while retaining the key features of endogenous HDL. The studies presented here involve the macromolecular assembly of the myristic acid conjugated peptide (MYR-5A) into nanomicellar structures and its characterization via steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The structural differences between the free peptide (5A) and MYR-5A conjugate were also probed, using tryptophan fluorescence, Fӧrster resonance energy transfer (FRET), dynamic light scattering, and gel exclusion chromatography. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a lipoprotein assembly generated from a single ingredient and without a separate lipid component. The therapeutic utility of these nanoparticles (due to their capablity to incorporate a wide range of drugs into their core region for targeted delivery) was also investigated by probing the role of the scavenger receptor type B1 in this process. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Although lipoproteins have been considered as effective drug delivery agents, none of these nanoformulations has entered clinical trials to date. A major challenge to advancing lipoprotein-based formulations to the clinic has been the availability of a cost-effective protein or peptide constituent, needed for the assembly of the drug/lipoprotein nanocomplexes. This report of a robust, spontaneously assembling drug transport system from a single component could provide the template for a superior, targeted drug delivery strategy for therapeutics of cancer and other diseases (Counsell and Pohland, 1982).

PMID: 31941718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Glycyrrhizin Protects γ-Irradiated Mice from Gut Bacteria-Associated Infectious Complications by Improving miR-222-Associated Gas5 RNA Reduction in Macrophages of the Bacterial Translocation Site.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 09/09/2020 - 06:36
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Glycyrrhizin Protects γ-Irradiated Mice from Gut Bacteria-Associated Infectious Complications by Improving miR-222-Associated Gas5 RNA Reduction in Macrophages of the Bacterial Translocation Site.

J Immunol. 2020 03 01;204(5):1255-1262

Authors: Ito I, Loucas BD, Suzuki S, Kobayashi M, Suzuki F

Abstract
Gut bacteria-associated sepsis is a serious concern in patients with gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GIARS). In our previous studies, gut bacteria-associated sepsis caused high mortality rates in mice exposed to 6-9 Gy of γ-rays. IL-12+CD38+ iNOS+ Mϕ (M1Mϕ) located in the bacterial translocation site (mesenteric lymph nodes [MLNs]) of unirradiated mice were characterized as host defense antibacterial effector cells. However, cells isolated from the MLNs of GIARS mice were mostly CCL1+IL-10+LIGHT+miR-27a+ Mϕ (M2bMϕ, inhibitor cells for the M1Mϕ polarization). Reduced long noncoding RNA Gas5 and increased miR-222 expression in MLN-Mϕ influenced by the irradiation were shown to be associated with M2bMϕ polarization. In this study, the mortality of mice exposed to 7 Gy of γ-rays (7 Gy GIARS mice) was completely controlled after the administration of glycyrrhizin (GL), a major active ingredient in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Bacterial translocation and subsequent sepsis were minimal in 7 Gy GIARS mice treated with GL. Increased Gas5 RNA level and decreased miR-222 expression were shown in MLN-Mϕ isolated from 7 Gy GIARS mice treated with GL, and these macrophages did not display any properties of M2bMϕ. These results indicate that gut bacteria-associated sepsis in 7 Gy GIARS mice was controlled by the GL through the inhibition of M2bMϕ polarization at the bacteria translocation site. Expression of Ccl1, a gene required for M2bMϕ survival, is silenced in the MLNs of 7 Gy GIARS mice because of Gas5 RNA, which is increased in these cells after the suppression of miR-222 (a Gas5 RNA expression inhibitor) by the GL.

PMID: 31941655 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Comparative expression analysis of phospholipid binding protein annexina1 in nephrogenesis and kidney cancer.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 09/09/2020 - 06:36
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Comparative expression analysis of phospholipid binding protein annexina1 in nephrogenesis and kidney cancer.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2019 Nov 14;31(4):

Authors: Sadashiv R, Bannur BM, Shetty P, Dinesh US, K Vishwanatha J, Deshpande SK, Bargale A, E S, Ruikar K

Abstract
Background The expression in the glomerular mesangial cells, papillary, and collecting duct cells demonstrated annexin A1 (AnxA1)'s role in specific renal functions. With varying concentrations of calcium (Ca2+), it is considered to regulate cellular processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and clearance of apoptotic cells by forming ceramides, a key lipid mediator of apoptosis. It also participates in tumorigenesis based on its location. On account of these features, we investigated the expression of this apoptosis-associated protein in fetal kidneys at different gestational periods, mature kidneys and in kidney cancer tissues in order to localize and possibly characterize its role during nephrogenesis and renal tumors. Methods AnxA1 expression was evaluated by an immunohistochemistry technique in "paraffin-embedded" renal tissue sections from autopsied fetuses at different gestational ages, in mature kidneys and renal cancer tissues. Results The current study data demonstrated that AnxA1 is expressed in the mesangial cells and podocytes of maturing glomeruli in the developing renal cortex of fetal kidneys at 14 to 19 weeks of gestation. The expression in the mesangial cells declined in later weeks of gestation and persisted into adulthood. AnxA1 expression increased with the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and also in other cancer types indicating a potential role of the protein in tumorigenesis. Conclusions We presume that AnxA1 in the podocytes and mesangial cells play important roles in various signaling pathways in the functioning of the glomerulus. These results and concepts provide a framework to further dissect its biological properties and thereby develop diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies targeting the molecule in various renal pathologies.

PMID: 31730527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Empirical comparison of approaches for odds ratios to risk ratio transformations in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials with common outcomes.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 09/08/2020 - 05:51
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Empirical comparison of approaches for odds ratios to risk ratio transformations in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials with common outcomes.

Ann Epidemiol. 2020 04;44:57-59.e3

Authors: Chu TC, Ojha RP, VanderWeele TJ

PMID: 32265076 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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